Institut du Cerveau https://icm-institute.org Mon, 06 Apr 2020 10:55:23 +0000 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.13 hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.13 Covid-19 pandemic: Paris Brain Institute mobilizes and carries on https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/covid-19-pandemic-paris-brain-institute-mobilizes-and-carries-on/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/covid-19-pandemic-paris-brain-institute-mobilizes-and-carries-on/#respond Sat, 21 Mar 2020 07:00:46 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18793 In the context of the coronavirus pandemic, the Paris Brain Institute pursues its research activity in the best way possible and participates actively in the effort For more information ]]> In the context of the coronavirus pandemic, the Paris Brain Institute pursues its research activity in the best way possible and participates actively in the effort to fight the virus and help patients.

The Covid-19 pandemic has disrupted our activities and put on hold our lab-based work to a significant extent. All research teams have reduced their experiments to the minimum necessary, focusing on bringing their ongoing experiments to a successful conclusion. Almost all our staff now work from home and pursue their activities in the best way possible under the circumstances, analyzing data, writing papers and grants, and using virtual tools to communicate with one another. Research never stops!

Located in the heart of the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, which receives many Covid-19 patients, the Paris Brain Institute is in close contact with the medical teams and has already offered access to its equipment and skills to participate in the screening and care of patients.

Furthermore, all our clinicians who are members of both the Paris Brain Institute and the Neuroscience Medico-University department of the hospital are mobilized to support the medical teams taking care of Covid-19 patients, as Pitié-Salpêtrière is now the reference center for the Covid-19 patient care.

In these difficult times, we need to reaffirm our values:

– For communication based on scientific and medical research facts, especially in the context of much fake news and false information being spread all over the internet.

– At the service of patients and knowledge, always.

– Openness and collaboration are the key to progress and we do our best to offer as much help as possible to the teams fighting the virus.

We cannot predict how the situation will evolve over coming weeks and months, but we are confident that the efforts of the physicians, nurses and all healthcare and research professionals involved will prevail. Our thoughts go out to all, and in particular to those for whom this crisis is adding to the burden of an affected brain. When the dust settles on this pandemic, the millions who suffer from disorders of the brain and mind will still need us. I can assure you that the Paris Brain Institute will be there to pursue its commitment to understand the brain and its pathologies, at the service of patients and the public.

Sincerely,

Prof Alexis Brice, Executive Director

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Emergence of behavioral individuality in the fly’s brain https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/emergence-of-behavioral-individuality/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/emergence-of-behavioral-individuality/#respond Fri, 20 Mar 2020 08:59:03 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18755  Where does our individuality come from? What makes us unique in our behavior? Could it all be in our brain? Prof. Bassem Hassan* and his team discovered a For more information ]]>  Where does our individuality come from? What makes us unique in our behavior? Could it all be in our brain? Prof. Bassem Hassan* and his team discovered a stochastic wiring mechanism of circuits in the fly’s brain at the origin of individual behavior, which might represent a general principle of how certain aspects of individuality emerge in the brain. Results are published in Science.

 

 The idea that brain circuits regulate behavior is pretty straightforward notion. If a circuit is different between individuals, then it might influence their behavior individually. This could explain some of the behavioral idiosyncrasy present in population. But how to demonstrate this idea in an experimental setting?

 

“The first problem we had to tackle was: how do you find a behavior that corresponds to the wiring of these particular neurons?” explains Prof Bassem Hassan. “The breakthrough came when a colleague of mine, Andrew Straw, contacted me, to tell me that while he was studying a specific behavior, he found that the specific circuit we were studying regulated that behavior. This is when the adventure took a leap” explains Bassem Hassan

 

Bassem Hassan and his team have been working on this specific circuit of the brain, a visual system circuit called Dorsal Cluster Neurons (DCN) for several years. They had identified a stochastic anatomical and developmental variability in this system meaning that the brain of one fly develop slightly differently from the brain of another fly and as soon as the development is finished, that pattern is stable throughout the fly’s life.

But what about behavior? Is it as stable and unique as the circuit? To delve that question, the team started to test this behavior in flies for several weeks checking and showed this behavior remained constant in an individual fly but differed between flies. Moreover, they observed that with every generation the entire variance of the behavior was reset, meaning that the behavioral individuality was more the result of the unique development of each brain, than the specific genome of each individual.

 

“Now we had the behavior and the circuit, both unique to an individual fly and stable over time, but what is the link between the two?”

 

To explore this question, they conducted a series of experiments, led by Dr. Gerit Linneweber the first author of the study, in close collaboration with the team of Prof. Peter Robin Hiesinger in Berlin. By modifying the wiring in the flies’ brain and silencing DCN, an expertise they gathered from more than 10 years working on that circuit, they showed that the strongest anatomical correlate was left-right asymmetry in the wiring of a specific area that correlate with narrow or wide a path a fly would take toward an object. Not only that, but also a causal link between the circuit and behavior when rewiring the circuit happened to shift the flies’ behavior while maintaining the correlation between the circuit and the behavior in individual flies. These results established that the way the circuit develops causally underlies to a certain significant extent, the way the animal behaves.

 

“The idea that there is something innate about certain aspects of idiosyncrasy, that we would call “personality” in human psychology, and that it originates in the brain, is a very old idea. For the first time we can pinpoint to a clear distinctive brain-based origin for a parameter of what we could call an animal’s personality. The fact that it is due to developmental mechanisms that cannot be predicted either by the environment alone or the genome alone but from the phenomenon of stochastic developmental noise is super exciting. We are lucky enough to begin to solve two mysteries at the same time.

Doing this very basic research for a long time, which had no other obvious goal than understanding how the brain develops, and being able to show that by taking those approach and slowly building a knowledge base about a certain question you are interested in simply by curiosity-driven science, is extremely satisfying and a real reward for the effort of so many people in the team.” Concludes Bassem Hassan


*Bassem Hassan is scientific director and team leader at Paris Brain Institute, Allen Distinguished Investigator and “Einstein Visiting Fellow” of the Berlin Institute of Health at the Free University of Berlin.

 

Source

A neurodevelopmental origin of behavioral individuality in the Drosophila visual system.Linneweber GA et al, Science. March 2020.

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TOURETTE SYNDROME : MOTOR IMPULSES DO NOT PREDICT PATIENTS’ TICS https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/tourette-syndrome-motor-impulses-do-not-predict-patients-tics/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/tourette-syndrome-motor-impulses-do-not-predict-patients-tics/#respond Fri, 20 Mar 2020 07:53:32 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18745 CYRIL ATKINSON-CLÉMENT (ICM) AND YULIA WORBE (SORBONNE UNIVERSITÉ/APHP) IN THE TEAM “NORMAL AND ABNORMAL MOTOR CONTROL: MOVEMENT DISORDERS AND EXPERIMENTAL For more information ]]> CYRIL ATKINSON-CLÉMENT (ICM) AND YULIA WORBE (SORBONNE UNIVERSITÉ/APHP) IN THE TEAM “NORMAL AND ABNORMAL MOTOR CONTROL: MOVEMENT DISORDERS AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS” AT PARIS BRAIN INSTITUTE, SHOW THAT THE CONTROL OF MOTOR IMPULSIVITY, THE TRAIT THAT CHARACTERIZES THE ABILITY TO INHIBIT A MOVEMENT OR ACTION ALREADY STARTED, IS NOT CORRELATED WITH TICS IN PATIENTS WITH TOURETTE’S GILLES SYNDROME. THESE RESULTS, PUBLISHED IN THE JOURNAL CORTEX, SHED NEW LIGHT ON THIS COMPLEX PATHOLOGY.

 

Abnormality of inhibitory control is considered to be a potential cognitive marker of tics in Tourette disorder (TD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and impulse control disorders. The results of the studies on inhibitory control in TD showed discrepant results. The aim of the present study was to assess reactive inhibitory control in adult TD patients with and without antipsychotic medication, and under emotional stimulation (visual images with positive, neutral and negative content).

 

We assessed 31 unmedicated and 19 medicated TD patients and 26 matched healthy controls using the stop signal task as an index of reactive motor impulsivity and emotional stimulation with the aim to increase impulsivity. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging analysis using a regions of interest approach on grey matter signal, resting-state spontaneous brain activity and functional connectivity analyses.

 

We found a higher reactive motor impulsivity in TD patients medicated with antipsychotics compared to unmedicated TD patients and controls. This propensity for reactive motor impulsivity in medicated TD patients was not influenced by ADHD or emotional stimulation. Neuroimaging results in medicated TD patients suggested that reactive motor impulsivity was underpinned by an increased grey matter signal from the right supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus; decreased resting-state spontaneous activity of the left putamen; higher functional connectivity between the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal gyri (bilaterally); lower functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the right subthalamic nucleus.

 

Taken together, our data suggested (i) a deficit in reactive motor impulsivity in TD patients medicated with atypical antipsychotics that was unrelated to ADHD and (ii) that motor impulsivity was underpinned by structures and by functional connectivity of the fronto-temporo-basal ganglia-cerebellar pathway.

 

Source

Neural correlates and role of medication in reactive motor impulsivity in Tourette disorder.

Atkinson-Clement C, et al. Cortex 2019.

 

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Scipio bioscience raises €6.0 M Series A financing  https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/scipio-bioscience-raises-e6-0-m-series-a-financing/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/scipio-bioscience-raises-e6-0-m-series-a-financing/#respond Fri, 20 Mar 2020 07:10:48 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18702 To develop and launch a kit dedicated to sample preparation for single-cell RNA-sequencing 

Paris, 25 February 2020 - Scipio bioscience, a Paris-based biotechnology For more information ]]> To develop and launch a kit dedicated to sample preparation for single-cell RNA-sequencing 

Paris, 25 February 2020 – Scipio bioscience, a Paris-based biotechnology company, developing a new generation of single-cell sequencing solutions, announces today that it has secured a €6.0 M Series A financing from an international syndicate led by M Ventures (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), the corporate venture capital arm of Merck. The initial shareholders Seventure Partners’ Quadrivum I (Paris, France) and High-Tech Gründerfonds (Bonn, Germany) participated in the capital increase, alongside additional investors Financière Arbevel (Paris, France) and investiere (Zürich, Switzerland). 

There is a substantial unmet need for cost-effective single-cell sequencing methods. The availability of such methods will drive single-cell market growth globally, both in the basic and clinical research fields. Scipio bioscience is pioneering affordable single-cell sample preparation for sequencing. We fully support the team to deliver a much-needed solution based on their disruptive technology and to grow Scipio bioscience into a major player in single-cell biology” says Arnaud Autret, Investment Principal at M Ventures. 

Philippe Tramoy, Partner at the Quadrivium 1 seed capital fund at Seventure Partners, adds: “We are thrilled that our seed investment in Scipio’s truly deep tech project was crucial to turn its disruptive technology into a potential game changer. We look forward to getting to the next phases of development.  

Prof Stuart Edelstein, President, says: “We are convinced that our user-friendly kit, requiring no specific equipment and accessible for any benchtop, will enable thousands of additional scientists to perform single-cell RNA-sequencing. This availability will change the way biological questions are addressed and ultimately benefit both basic research and clinical applications. We are delighted to initiate collaborations for beta-testing of our kit, initially with ICM (Brain & Spine Institute, Paris, France) laboratories, as the interactions so far with its world-class teams and cutting-edge core facilities have been extremely fruitful. Our goal is to extend collaborations to leading European research institutes.” 

The €6.0 M Series A funding will fuel the final development of its single-cell RNA-sequencing kit, as well as marketing and business development efforts to prepare for commercial launch in 2022. 

About Scipio bioscience 

Scipio bioscience develops a new generation of single-cell sequencing solutions, to answer the growing needs of clinical and basic research labs. The patented technology is based on an innovative chemical approach conceived by its President and Co-Founder, Prof Stuart Edelstein, a world-renowned biophysicist. Pierre Walrafen, PhD, CEO and Co-Founder of Scipio Bioscience, directs a team composed of scientists with expertise in molecular biology, chemistry, and bioinformatics. The company, hosted in the iPEPS-ICM incubator of the Brain & Spine Institute (ICM, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris), has developed the protocol from the initial proof-of-concept studies to a prototype kit ready for beta-testing by collaborating research teams. Scipio bioscience was supported by a grant from the Région Île-de-France and the Programme d’Investissement d’Avenir, operated by BPI France. 

For more information: www.scipio.bio 

About M Ventures 

M Ventures is the strategic, corporate venture capital arm of Merck. Its mandate is to invest in innovative technologies and products with the potential to significantly impact the company’s core business areas. From its headquarters in Amsterdam and offices in the US and Israel, M Ventures invests globally in transformational ideas driven by great entrepreneurs. M Ventures takes an active role in its portfolio companies and teams up with entrepreneurs and co-investors to translate innovation towards commercial success. For more information, visit www.m-ventures.com 

About Quadrivium 1 Seed Fund 

The Quadrivium 1 Seed Fund is one of the venture funds managed by Seventure Partners. This fund finances French companies in the seed round (FNA – Future Investment Program) in the areas of Life Sciences & Digital Technologies, which are related to or linked to the academic cluster federated around the UPMC, Paris II University, Paris IV University, National Museum of Natural History, IRCAM, ENSCI, Technological University of Compiègne, CNRS, Curie Institute , Pierre Gilles de Gennes Foundation, Voir et Entendre Foundation and Paris Sciences et Lettres (PSL). 

About Seventure Partners 

With €750 M net commitments under management as of the end of 2018, Seventure Partners is a leading venture capital firm in Europe. Since 1997, Seventure Partners has been investing in innovative businesses with high growth potential in two fields: Life sciences across Europe, Israel, Asia and North America and Digital technologies in France and Germany. Investments can range between €500 k and €10 M per round, or up to €20 M per company, from early to late stage. Seventure Partners is a subsidiary of Natixis Investment Managers. Natixis is a subsidiary of Groupe BPCE, the second-largest banking group in France. 

For more details: www.seventure.fr/en Twitter: @seventurep 

About the High-Tech Gründerfonds 

High-Tech Gründerfonds (HTGF) is a seed investor that finances high-potential, tech-driven start-ups. With €895.5 M in total investment volume across three funds and an international network of partners, HTGF has already helped forge more than 560 start-ups since 2005. Driven by their expertise, entrepreneurial spirit and passion, its team of experienced investment managers and start-up experts help guide the development of young companies. HTGF’s focus is on high-tech start-ups in a range of sectors, including software, hardware and life sciences/ chemistry. To date, external investors have injected over €2 B into the HTGF portfolio via about 1,400 follow-on financing rounds. HTGF has also successfully sold interests in more than 100 companies. 

Investors in the public-private partnership include the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, KfW Capital, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft and the commercial enterprises ALTANA, BASF, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, B. Braun, Robert Bosch, BÜFA, CEWE, Deutsche Post DHL, Dräger, Drillisch AG, EVONIK, EWE AG, FOND OF, Haniel, Hettich, Knauf, Körber, LANXESS, media + more venture Beteiligungs GmbH & Co. KG, PHOENIX CONTACT, Postbank, QIAGEN, RWE Generation SE, SAP, Schufa, Schwarz Gruppe, STIHL, Thüga, Vector Informatik, WACKER and Wilh. Werhahn KG. 

About Financière Arbevel 

Founded in 1997, Financière Arbevel, an entrepreneurial investment management company, has grown significantly since its takeover by the current owners in early 2009 – the AUM progressed from €25 M to €1.9 B as of today (of which €752 M under the umbrella SICAV “Pluvalca” comprising 9 sub-funds). The company currently employs a total of 34 staff, of which 13 are dedicated to fund management/investment research. Financière Arbevel is recognized for its expertise within the small & mid cap asset class. We are a research-driven organization with a strong emphasis on fundamental financial and strategic analysis, close relationships with top managements of listed companies (more than 1,000 company meetings last year) and a permanent quest for new investment themes offering structural growth opportunities. The digitalization, fintech, Industry 4.0, or the ageing of the world population are some of our favorite investment themes. We ensure we are following closely the latest developments within this universe, by participating in various conferences, trade fairs, sector-specific thematic events and by meeting regularly with managements of listed companies. Our small & mid cap DNA is spread across various strategies under the PLUVALCA family of funds with a cross-asset approach comprising our core equity funds, thematic equity funds, fixed income and diversified/flexible allocation funds). In 2015, the Norwegian sovereign wealth fund chose Financière Arbevel to manage its French equity mandate. In 2018, Financière Arbevel pursued its development by launching its first European private equity fund (FPCI form or “Professional private equity investment fund”) with a cross-over approach focused on the non-listed life-science universe, with the idea of accompanying a limited number of biotechnology start-ups in their development. www.arbevel.com 

About investiere 

investiere is the leading European startup investment platform for qualified and institutional investors. A team of investment professionals screens thousands of companies and presents the best investment opportunities on a digital platform after a rigorous due diligence process. investiere focuses on European high-tech startups. The investiere community consists of more than 4,000 qualified private investors, family offices and pension funds. Furthermore, numerous corporations rely on investiere’s expertise to screen, select and invest in promising startups. With CHF 100 M invested since inception in 2010, investiere is Switzerland’s most active startup investor. Switzerland’s third-largest bank, Zürcher Kantonalbank, is an anchor investor of investiere. To join investiere’s growing international investor community, visit www.investiere.ch. 

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THE FIRST COMPLETE MAPPING OF CEREBRAL VASCULATURE https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-first-complete-mapping-of-cerebral-vasculature/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-first-complete-mapping-of-cerebral-vasculature/#respond Fri, 14 Feb 2020 12:26:22 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18644 Paris, February 13, 2020 – The team of Nicolas Renier at the Paris Brain Institute has succeeded in reconstructing the entire cerebral vascular system of mice with For more information ]]> Paris, February 13, 2020 – The team of Nicolas Renier at the Paris Brain Institute has succeeded in reconstructing the entire cerebral vascular system of mice with unprecedented precision. This work has been conducted in collaboration with Christoph Kirst, now assistant professor at UCSF, California. While many neurological and psychiatric pathologies have a vascular component, it is still under-studied due to the complexity of the blood vessels’ network, intimately intertwined with neural cells. The tool developed by the researchers opens the way to important research on the role of cerebral vascularization in the evolution of many brain diseases. The results of this study are published in the journal Cell.

 

To meet its important needs for oxygen and nutrients, the brain is very richly vascularized in blood veins, arteries and capillaries. The cerebral vascular system plays an essential role in the function and maintenance of neuronal circuits. Many brain pathologies, both neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia, autism or depression), have a vascular component which, although not necessarily the cause of these diseases, can be an aggravating factor. The study of the cerebral vascular system as a whole represents a major challenge, due to its density and complexity, but also an opportunity because its complete 3D reconstruction is now possible.

 

Mission accomplished for Nicolas Renier’s team at the Paris Brain Institute. Thanks to a combination of expertise in mathematics (Christoph Kirst and Sophie Skriabine) and neurobiology (Alba Vieites-Prado and Thomas Topilko), the researchers have succeeded in reconstructing the entire cerebral vascular system of the mouse at very high resolution with automatic recognition of the nature of each vessel (artery, capillary or vein). Since the conclusion of this study, several dozen brains have been reconstructed, as the technique makes it faster and easier to obtain this data. Whereas such reconstructions used to take several months or years of manual work per brain before, researchers can now reconstruct a brain in just 2 days.

 

To accomplish this, they have developed a bio-marking method to distinguish blood arteries, veins and capillaries in an optically transparent brain in order to record three-dimensional images using the latest imaging technique, light sheet microscopy. These highly complex raw data of the cerebral vasculature then passed into the hands of mathematicians who developed a software to reconstruct these images using innovative approaches combining formal mathematics and artificial neural networks.

 

Detail of an automated reconstruction of a cerebral vascular network, at the level of the hippocampus, showing arteries in red, veins in blue, cortical capillaries in dark green, hippocampal capillaries in light green, and finally thalamic capillaries in pink.

Detail of an automated reconstruction of a cerebral vascular network, at the level of the hippocampus, showing arteries in red, veins in blue, cortical capillaries in dark green, hippocampal capillaries in light green, and finally thalamic capillaries in pink.

 

The result is a three-dimensional mathematical reconstruction of the cerebral vascular system, distinguishing the different types of blood vessels, their location and organization in the different brain regions. On the scale of a mouse brain (about 1cm3), this represents almost 280 meters and some 8 million vessels with major regional variations in terms of vessel density, very important in the sensory regions for example.

 

“These reconstructions open the way to new working hypotheses and opportunities, particularly to study the alteration to the vascular network in different pathologies, but also to understand the intimate organization of the cerebrovascular network and how it supports neuronal functions. “explains Nicolas Renier

 

To validate this methodology, the research team collaborated with Piotr Topilko’s team, which is developing experimental models of stroke, to study the impact of a stroke, which corresponds to the obstruction or rupture of a cerebral artery, on the brain’s vasculature. They observed a massive redirection of blood capillaries to the site of the stroke. “The vascular network, even in an adult brain, is extremely plastic and can be subject to very significant changes.” continues Nicolas Renier.

 

Having shown that the sensory regions were among the most densely vascularized in the brain, the researchers, in collaboration with Nicolas Michalski and Christine Petit of the Institut Pasteur, studied the effect of deafness on the cerebral vascular network.  They were able to measure that during congenital deafness, the vascularization of the auditory areas is largely diminished in favor of an increase in the vascularization of the cerebral areas associated with touch and sight. A form of compensation would thus exist between the different cerebral areas, the neuronal communication between these areas influencing the reorganization of the vascular network.

 

“These data are very encouraging and drive us to explore other pathological contexts in which neuronal activity is affected. The tool we have developed allows us to perform these reconstructions on a whole-brain scale in different contexts and thus generate new hypotheses on how various diseases modify vascular topology. “concludes Nicolas Renier.

 

Source

 

Mapping the fine scale organization and plasticity of the brain vasculature, Christoph Kirst, Sophie Skriabine, Alba Vieites-Prado, Thomas Topilko, Paul Bertin, Gaspard Gerschenfeld, Florine Verny, Piotr Topilko, Nicolas Michalski, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Nicolas Renier, Cell, February 2020.
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6 ICM researchers awarded the prestigious European fellowship Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/6-icm-researchers-awarded-the-prestigious-european-fellowship-marie-sklodowska-curie-actions/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/6-icm-researchers-awarded-the-prestigious-european-fellowship-marie-sklodowska-curie-actions/#respond Thu, 06 Feb 2020 15:13:46 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18628 This year, 6 young ICM researchers were awarded a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions postdoctoral fellowship. A record!

 

The Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions (MSCA) For more information ]]> This year, 6 young ICM researchers were awarded a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions postdoctoral fellowship. A record!

 

The Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions (MSCA) fellowships are part of Horizon 2020, the EU’s framework programme for research and innovation. They are awarded to outstanding post-doctoral researchers and outstanding doctoral and post-doctoral training programmes.

This year, among the 1500 European winners, 6 are ICM researchers! This is a record since the Institute’s creation. This result demonstrates the excellence of the research conducted at the ICM and of the researchers recruited.

The 6 ICM laureates are:

– Adrien Martel

– Yannick Mullié

– Martina Bracco

– Yann Le Guen

– Yann Zerlaut

– Yonatan Sanz-Perl

 

“Congratulations to the six laureates! We are very proud of this result and of all these excellent young researchers who conduct cutting-edge research in neuroscience at the ICM. “Alexis Brice, Executive Director of the ICM

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BASSEM HASSAN RECEIVES THE PRESTIGIOUS  ROGER DE SPOELBERCH PRIZE 2019  https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/bassem-hassan-receives-the-prestigious-roger-de-spoelberch-prize-2019/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/bassem-hassan-receives-the-prestigious-roger-de-spoelberch-prize-2019/#respond Thu, 06 Feb 2020 13:41:40 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18621  

Paris, February 5th 2020 - Bassem Hassan, head of the "Brain Development" team and Scientific Director of the Brain and Spinal Cord Institute (ICM), received the For more information ]]>  

Paris, February 5th 2020 – Bassem Hassan, head of the “Brain Development” team and Scientific Director of the Brain and Spinal Cord Institute (ICM), received the Roger de Spoelberch Prize for his research project in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. 

Each year, the Geneva-based Roger de Spoelberch Foundation awards its prize to a clinical and fundamental scientific research project in the field of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. 

This year, Bassem Hassan, head of the “Brain Development” team and Scientific Director of the ICM, received the Roger de Spoelberch 2019 prize for his project entitled “The Amyloid Precursor Protein in neuronal development, homeostasis and demise”. 

My lab is interested in asking fundamental questions about how the brain develops and maintains its health throughout life. We think neurodegenerative disease is actually caused by a failure of pro-health mechanisms, rather than the onset of toxic mechanisms. The Amyloid Precursors Protein is very well known and widely studied for its involvement in Alzheimer’s disease, but what it does in a normal brain is – surprisingly – still unclear. There is a lot of evidence to suggest that this protein, which is very conserved in evolution and expressed throughout the brain, may be part of what keeps the brain healthy throughout life. The project is about exploring how exactly this protein contributes to healthy brain development and ageing. The hope is that this knowledge will spur new discoveries so that physicians might one day be able to exploit normal health mechanisms to ameliorate the lives of people who suffer from brain disorders.” Bassem Hassan 

The aim of the Roger de Spoelberch Foundation is to encourage scientific and medical research to develop new ways of combating neurodegenerative diseases and certain psychiatric illnesses that seriously alter behavior such as schizophrenia. The Roger de Spoelberch Award represents significant financial support for the continuation of this project in Alzheimer’s disease to better understand the role of this protein in neuronal function. 

I am very grateful to the Roger De Spoelberch Foundation for supporting this line of research. It shows that the foundation is not afraid to believe and invest in new ideas, and we need more of that in science. I am also humbled by the prize which recognizes our past achievements. Some of the world’s most renowned neuroscientists have won this prize in the past and I feel very privileged to be among such esteemed colleagues. I am also very proud of ICM, because we are now the only institute which has had two winners of this prestigious prize, and that shows that ICM is a place for high quality brain research  

The award ceremony will take place on March 17 at 10 a.m. at the Brain and Spinal Cord Institute. 

More information on the Roger Spoelberch Foundation

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THE CHARCOT LIBRARY, A SHOWCASE OF KNOWLEDGE https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/charcot-library/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/charcot-library/#respond Tue, 04 Feb 2020 09:18:03 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18545 On the occasion of the ICM’s 10th anniversary, FOCUS on the Charcot Library !!!

The ICM has a historical legacy, illustrated by the presence within its walls of For more information ]]> On the occasion of the ICM’s 10th anniversary, FOCUS on the Charcot Library !!!

The ICM has a historical legacy, illustrated by the presence within its walls of the Charcot Library (Sorbonne Université). It is named after Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), a famous French neurologist and academician, considered the father of clinical neurology and founder, in 1880, of the Archives de neurologie(Neurology Archives).

The library contains 5000 volumes, hundreds of thesis compiled by Charcot in dummy collections, but also dozens of journals in French, English, German, and Italian.

In this library you will find the development of French medical literature in neurology. This library also abounds with many other medical, scientific, psychological and even religious subjects.

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Core facilities R&D #1: A cutting-edge R package for MEG-EEG statistical analysis https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/meg-eeg-statistical-analysis/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/meg-eeg-statistical-analysis/#respond Wed, 22 Jan 2020 12:36:11 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18507 Because the quality of scientific discoveries depends very strongly on the match between research projects and the evolution of technology, the ICM offers you, in For more information ]]> Because the quality of scientific discoveries depends very strongly on the match between research projects and the evolution of technology, the ICM offers you, in this new series of articles, to discover the work carried out by its core facilities to constantly adapt to technological advances and the requirements induced by scientific research. First stop at the Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography (MEG-EEG) core facility and its cutting-edge R package for MEG-EEG statistical analysis, carried by Lydia YAHIA CHERIF, research engineer on the MEG-EEG core facility & Ivan MOSZER, operational manager of the ICM bioinformatics and biostatistics core facility, iCONICS. 

The MEG-EEG center provides infrastructure and computing tools as well as technical and scientific support to researchers for data acquisition and analysis.

The growing complexity of neuroscience research results in elaborate experimental designs with multimodal recordings. MEG-EEG experiments are increasingly integrating MRI, physiological parameters (heart, skin and motion), neuropsychological results (tests scores) and behavioral data. Moreover, mixed designs with unequal sample sizes, multiple variables vs. insufficient observations are more and more frequent.

Conventional techniques such as standard repeated measures ANOVA with a simple variance-covariance matrix are unable to handle such situations. Advanced techniques are thus required, such as random and fixed effects GLM, linear mixed effect models, PLS techniques. Except for SPM, which is dedicated to MRI analysis, t-test with multiple comparisons correction is most often the unique test provided by the existing toolboxes for MEG-EEG data analysis.

There is a pressing need for a software solution that integrates methods for multivariate statistical analysis of electro-physiological data, and proposes advanced and innovative techniques adapted to MEG-EEG recording structure and experimental designs.

Therefore, Lydia YAHIA CHERIF and Ivan MOSZER are currently developing an R package dedicated to statistical analysis of MEG-EEG data, which integrates state of the art methods adapted to MEG-EEG data structure. This R package will be the first one dedicated to MEG-EEG statistical analysis. As an R package, it will be open to external contributions and will be enhanced and maintained in the long term. Given the evident lack of statistical tools for MEG-EEG signals, this package will be most probably highly welcomed by the international community.

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Modulation of Coordinated Activity across Cortical Layers by Plasticity of Inhibitory Synapses https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/modulation-of-coordinated-activity-across-cortical-layers-by-plasticity-of-inhibitory-synapses/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/modulation-of-coordinated-activity-across-cortical-layers-by-plasticity-of-inhibitory-synapses/#respond Wed, 22 Jan 2020 11:14:59 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18504 In the neocortex, synaptic inhibition shapes all forms of spontaneous and sensory evoked activity. Importantly, inhibitory transmission is highly plastic, but the For more information ]]> In the neocortex, synaptic inhibition shapes all forms of spontaneous and sensory evoked activity. Importantly, inhibitory transmission is highly plastic, but the functional role of inhibitory synaptic plasticity is unknown. In the mouse barrel cortex, activation of layer (L) 2/3 pyramidal neurons (PNs) elicits strong feedforward inhibition (FFI) onto L5 PNs. We find that FFI involving parvalbumin (PV)-expressing cells is strongly potentiated by postsynaptic PN burst firing. FFI plasticity modifies the PN excitation-to-inhibition (E/I) ratio, strongly modulates PN gain, and alters information transfer across cortical layers. Moreover, our LTPi-inducing protocol modifies firing of L5 PNs and alters the temporal association of PN spikes to γ-oscillations both in vitro and in vivo. All of these effects are captured by unbalancing the E/I ratio in a feedforward inhibition circuit model. Altogether, our results indicate that activity-dependent modulation of perisomatic inhibitory strength effectively influences the participation of single principal cortical neurons to cognition-relevant network activity.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.12.052

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VEGF-C-driven lymphatic drainage enables immunosurveillance of brain tumours https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/vegf-c-driven-lymphatic-drainage-enables-immunosurveillance-of-brain-tumours/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/vegf-c-driven-lymphatic-drainage-enables-immunosurveillance-of-brain-tumours/#respond Fri, 17 Jan 2020 10:16:08 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18487 Immune surveillance against pathogens and tumours in the central nervous system is thought to be limited owing to the lack of lymphatic drainage. However, the For more information ]]> Immune surveillance against pathogens and tumours in the central nervous system is thought to be limited owing to the lack of lymphatic drainage. However, the characterization of the meningeal lymphatic network has shed light on previously unappreciated ways that an immune response can be elicited to antigens that are expressed in the brain1-3. Despite progress in our understanding of the development and structure of the meningeal lymphatic system, the contribution of this network in evoking a protective antigen-specific immune response in the brain remains unclear. Here, using a mouse model of glioblastoma, we show that the meningeal lymphatic vasculature can be manipulated to mount better immune responses against brain tumours. The immunity that is mediated by CD8 T cells to the glioblastoma antigen is very limited when the tumour is confined to the central nervous system, resulting in uncontrolled tumour growth. However, ectopic expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) promotes enhanced priming of CD8 T cells in the draining deep cervical lymph nodes, migration of CD8 T cells into the tumour, rapid clearance of the glioblastoma and a long-lasting antitumour memory response. Furthermore, transfection of an mRNA construct that expresses VEGF-C works synergistically with checkpoint blockade therapy to eradicate existing glioblastoma. These results reveal the capacity of VEGF-C to promote immune surveillance of tumours, and suggest a new therapeutic approach to treat brain tumours.

PubMed link

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The ICM, member of a major international program on the genetics of Parkinson’s disease https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-icm-member-of-a-major-international-program-on-the-genetics-of-parkinsons-disease/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-icm-member-of-a-major-international-program-on-the-genetics-of-parkinsons-disease/#respond Tue, 24 Dec 2019 09:22:36 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18328 The ASAP (Aligning Science Across Parkinson's (ASAP) Initiative) announced the launch of the Global Parkinson's Genetics Program (GP2), a major international For more information ]]> The ASAP (Aligning Science Across Parkinson’s (ASAP) Initiative) announced the launch of the Global Parkinson’s Genetics Program (GP2), a major international research program on Parkinson’s disease in which the ICM is involved.

 

Genetics plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease and several risk factors have already been identified. The progress in the genetics of this disease has a global impact on its understanding and the development of therapeutic solutions.

However, there is still much to be learned about the influence of genetics on the disease. Being a carrier of risk factors does not mean that the disease will develop, and even among those who develop the disease, differences in the age of onset or its evolution suggest the existence of other “protective” factors.

 

The Global Parkinson’s Genetics Program has three aspects:

– To deepen current knowledge about the genetic architecture of Parkinson’s disease.

– Accelerate the discovery and validation of new genetic mutations involved in diseases.

– Provide training and resources for scientists and clinicians.

 

“To understand more precisely the full extent of the influence of genetics in Parkinson’s disease, it is necessary to analyze data from a very large number of subjects, 150,000, sick or not. This is the goal of this major Global Parkinson’s Genetics Program (GP2). The study of very diverse populations from around the world will also allow us to fill a major gap in our knowledge of Parkinson’s disease. By bringing together expert centers around the world on Parkinson’s disease such as the ICM, we are joining forces to advance our understanding of the disease’s mechanisms and, ultimately, the development of treatment. ” Prof Alexis Brice, ICM Executive Director and member of the Steering Committee of the GP2 program.

 

For more information: https://parkinsonsroadmap.org/asap-announces-new-resource/

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Identifying neuronal correlates of dying and resuscitation in a model of reversible brain anoxia https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/identifying-neuronal-correlates-brain-anoxia/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/identifying-neuronal-correlates-brain-anoxia/#respond Mon, 23 Dec 2019 10:52:35 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18319 The team led by Prof. Stéphane CHARPIER (Sorbonne Université) at the Brain and Spine Institute is describing live for the first time the neuronal changes during For more information ]]> The team led by Prof. Stéphane CHARPIER (Sorbonne Université) at the Brain and Spine Institute is describing live for the first time the neuronal changes during reoxygenation of the brain in anoxia in an experimental in vivo model.

Abstract

We developed a new rodent model of reversible brain anoxia and performed continuous electrocorticographic (ECoG) and intracellular recordings of neocortical neurons to identify in real-time the cellular and network dynamics that successively emerge throughout the dying-to-recovery process. Along with a global decrease in ECoG amplitude, deprivation of oxygen supply resulted in an early surge of beta-gamma activities, accompanied by rhythmic membrane depolarizations and regular firing in pyramidal neurons. ECoG and intracellular signals were then dominated by low-frequency activities which progressively declined towards isoelectric levels. Cortical neurons during the isoelectric state underwent a massive membrane potential depolarizing shift, captured in the ECoG as a large amplitude triphasic wave known as the “wave-of-death” (WoD). This neuronal anoxic depolarization, associated with a block of action potentials and a loss of cell integrative properties, could however be reversed if brain re-oxygenation was rapidly restored (within 23.5 min). The subsequent slow repolarization of neocortical neurons resulted in a second identifiable ECoG wave we termed “wave-of-resuscitation” since it inaugurated the progressive regaining of pre-anoxic synaptic and firing activities. These results demonstrate that the WoD is not a biomarker of an irremediable death and unveil the cellular correlates of a novel ECoG wave that may be predictive of a successful recovery. The identification of real-time biomarkers of onset and termination of cell anoxic insult could benefit research on interventional strategies to optimize resuscitation procedures.

Source

*Adrien E. Schramm, Antoine Carton-Leclercq, Shana Diallo, Vincent Navarro, Mario Chavez, Séverine Mahon, and Stéphane Charpier. Identifying neuronal correlates of dying and resuscitation in a model of reversible brain anoxia. Progress in Neurobiology. DOI :10.1016/j.pneurobio.2019.101733

 

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New team leader at ICM! Jaime de Juan-Sanz https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/jaime-de-juan-sanz-icm/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/jaime-de-juan-sanz-icm/#respond Tue, 17 Dec 2019 10:30:47 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18271 Jaime de Juan-Sanz holds The Diane Barrière Chair « Molecular physiology of synaptic bioenergetics ». We met him in is new lab to talk about his background and For more information ]]> Jaime de Juan-Sanz holds The Diane Barrière Chair « Molecular physiology of synaptic bioenergetics ». We met him in is new lab to talk about his background and research projects.

What is your background before coming to ICM?

I did my PhD in Spain, at the Center for Molecular Biology Severo Ochoa in Madrid. I studied glycine transporters, in particular GlyT2. Mutations in this transporter cause a disease called hyperekplexia, a neurological disorder characterized by pronounced startle responses to tactile or acoustic stimuli and hypertonia. In my PhD I worked on understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling this protein to provide more insights to understand this disease. Then I moved to the United States at the Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City to study the molecular mechanisms that control synaptic function in the lab of Timothy Ryan. There, we developed new biosensors to study novel biology of axonal organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. This was very useful to see things we could not see before, which allowed us to learn many new aspects of how synapses work.

When did you know you wanted to do neuroscience?

When I was studying at the University actually… to me it really was the most interesting issue. Neuroscience is a very complex piece of biology. I thought it was very interesting back in the day, but I still think the same today. Understanding how the brain works is a crazy task we are all trying to do together and it really is an exciting challenge.

What led you to ICM?

One thing I really like about ICM is that it is very focused on neuroscience. I really love having all my colleagues doing many very different things at all scales, from clinical trials to molecular biology, to circuits, diseases… I think it is a very good place for me to learn more about the many things in neuroscience that I am not an expert on, but also it will give me the opportunity to help others with my knowledge in molecular neurobiology, imaging and biosensors.

What will your research at ICM be about?

My research holds two different aspects: one more basic and one more related to pathology. The first one is to understand how neuronal communication is sustained by neuronal metabolism. The brain consumes a lot of our daily energy intake. Synapses in particular, which connect neurons to one another, are actually highly energy-consuming. Every time neurons communicate with each other a lot of energy is consumed during the process. Not surprisingly, not having enough energy to sustain neuronal communication leads to deleterious effects. The first aim of my research is to understand what are the essential molecular actors involved in sustaining bioenergetics in healthy synapses. The second aim, more related to pathology, is based on the hypothesis that impaired bioenergetics may cause epilepsy. 170 different mutations in humans that affect the function of mitochondria, the organelle that provides energy in the cells, cause epilepsy. My idea is to work on developing a better understanding at the molecular level of how things are failing in synapses from an energetic point of view when mitochondria are dysfunctional and see whether this is influencing the development of epilepsy.

What collaboration would like to set up here at ICM?

I will collaborate with Vincent Navarro and Stephanie Baulac on epilepsy for sure. We are currently discussing what we can do together. I am working mainly with rats and mice models but if we can get human samples from epileptic brains at some point, we could try to translate some of our work in humans. Also, I would like to collaborate with Nelson Rebola, we have common interests in understanding synaptic function. My idea is to move some of our novel tools into brain slices with Nelson to explore the synaptic role of organelles in intact tissue.

will give me the opportunity to help others with my knowledge in molecular neurobiology, imaging and biosensors.

What will your research at ICM be about?

My research holds two different aspects: one more basic and one more related to pathology. The first one is to understand how neuronal communication is sustained by neuronal metabolism. The brain consumes a lot of our daily energy intake. Synapses in particular, which connect neurons to one another, are actually highly energy-consuming. Every time neurons communicate with each other a lot of energy is consumed during the process. Not surprisingly, not having enough energy to sustain neuronal communication leads to deleterious effects. The first aim of my research is to understand what are the essential molecular actors involved in sustaining bioenergetics in healthy synapses. The second aim, more related to pathology, is based on the hypothesis that impaired bioenergetics may cause epilepsy. 170 different mutations in humans that affect the function of mitochondria, the organelle that provides energy in the cells, cause epilepsy. My idea is to work on developing a better understanding at the molecular level of how things are failing in synapses from an energetic point of view when mitochondria are dysfunctional and see whether this is influencing the development of epilepsy.

What collaboration would like to set up here at ICM?

I will collaborate with Vincent Navarro and Stephanie Baulac on epilepsy for sure. We are currently discussing what we can do together. I am working mainly with rats and mice models but if we can get human samples from epileptic brains at some point, we could try to translate some of our work in humans. Also, I would like to collaborate with Nelson Rebola, we have common interests in understanding synaptic function. My idea is to move some of our novel tools into brain slices with Nelson to explore the synaptic role of organelles in intact tissue.

What is your hope in research?

My hope is to understand much better the rules controlling how neurons communicate with each other. This will help the scientific community to better understand how the brain works but also to understand how synaptic dysfunction may contribute to different diseases of the nervous system. A detailed understanding of a disease is essential to find a cure.

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Three New ERC Laureates at the ICM https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/three-new-erc-laureates-at-the-icm/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/three-new-erc-laureates-at-the-icm/#respond Thu, 12 Dec 2019 10:04:39 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18237 Fabrizio DE VICO FALLANI, Chargé de Recherche INRIA and Daniel MARGULIES, Chargé de Recherche CNRS have obtained the ERC Consolidator Grants, Jaime DE  JUAN SANZ For more information ]]> Fabrizio DE VICO FALLANI, Chargé de Recherche INRIA and Daniel MARGULIES, Chargé de Recherche CNRS have obtained the ERC Consolidator Grants, Jaime DE  JUAN SANZ was rewarded by the ERC Starting grant.

 

The ERC’s (European Research Council) mission is to encourage the highest quality research in Europe through competitive funding and to support investigator-driven frontier research, on the basis of scientific excellence. The President of the ERC, Professor Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, commented: “Since 2007, the European Research Council has attracted and financed some of the most audacious research proposals, and independent evaluations show that this approach has paid off. Researchers from all over Europe and beyond pursue their best ideas and are in an excellent position to trigger breakthroughs and major scientific advances.”

Two ICM researchers have recently obtained the ERC Consolidator Grants (funding estimated at an average of €2 million per grant):

Fabrizio DE VICO FALLANI with the project “BCINET: Non-invasive decoding of brain communication patterns to ease motor restoration after stroke”.

Daniel MARGULIES with the project “CORTIGRAD: Cortical gradients of functional integration”.

One ICM researcher, that joined the institute this year, have recently obtained the ERC STARTING Grants (funded estimated at an average of €1 million per grant):

Jaime DE JUAN SANZ with the project “SYNAPTOENERGY”: Molecular physiology of nerve terminal bioenergetics

 

ICM – Center of Excellence and laureate of 14 ERC grants since the Institute creation

The ERC offers four core grant schemes and one additional scheme:

  • Starting Grant (for young researchers at 2-7 years after PhD, extensions are possible under certain circumstances);
  • Consolidator Grant (for researchers at 7-12 years after PhD, extensions are possible under certain circumstances);
  • Advanced Grant (for senior researchers);
  • Synergy Grant (highly transdisciplinary research for 2-4 PIs at any stage of career to put in place a synergy, never seen before to solve challenges, impossible to be addressed by any of the PIs alone).
  • With its additional Proof of Concept Grant scheme, the ERC helps grantees to bridge the gap between their pioneering research and early phases of its commercialisation.

ICM has hosted and managed 14 ERC “fronteer research” grants as coordinator (including 8 ongoing), 2 as a partner, 2 ERC Proof of Concept grants as a coordinator.

14 ICM ERC Laureates :

  1. Alberto Bacci (finished): Self-Modulating Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex: From Molecular Mechanisms to Cortical Network Activities
  2. Mathias Pessiglione (finished): Why do we do what we do? Biological, psychological and computational bases of motivation
  3. Frederic Darios (finished): Role of endoplasmic reticulum in neurodegeneration: physiopathology of a form of hereditary spastic paraplegia as a model
  4. Claire Wyart (finished): Dynamic sensory-motor integration in spinal circuits
  5. Richard Miles: Epilepsies of the temporal lobe: emergence, basal state and paroxysmal transitions
  6. Edor Kabashi: Defining functional networks of genetic causes for ALS and related neurodegenerative disorders
  7. Stéphanie Baulac: Neurobiology of epilepsy genes
  8. Stanley Durrleman: Learning spatiotemporal patterns in longitudinal image data sets of the aging brain
  9. Nelson Rebola: Impact of NMDA receptor diversity in sensory information processing
  10. Nicolas Renier : Mechanisms of neuronal circuits remodeling in the adult mammalian brain
  11. Michel Thiebaut de Schotten: DISCONNECTOME: Brain connections, Stroke, Symptoms Predictions and Brain Repair
  12. Jaime de Juan-Sanz : SynaptoEnergy: Molecular physiology of nerve terminal bioenergetics
  13. Fabrizio de Vico Fallani: BCINET: Non-invasive decoding of brain communication patterns to ease motor restoration after stroke
  14. Daniel Margulies: CORTIGRAD: Cortical gradients of functional integration
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Anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-cannabidiol-a-non-psychoactivecomponent-of-cannabis/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-cannabidiol-a-non-psychoactivecomponent-of-cannabis/#respond Mon, 02 Dec 2019 14:25:02 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=18193 A study conducted at ICM by Mauricio dos-Santos-Pereira and Patrick Michel together with a partner team in Brazil, identifies a key mechanism by which cannabidiol For more information ]]> A study conducted at ICM by Mauricio dos-Santos-Pereira and Patrick Michel together with a partner team in Brazil, identifies a key mechanism by which cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of cannabis, exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Results are published in the journal Glia.

Anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis

CBD is known to exert suppressive effects on immune cells in various inflammatory states. To better understand the nature of this effect, Mauricio dos-Santos-Pereira and Patrick Michel used a culture model of microglial cells, the tissue-resident macrophages of the brain and an activation paradigm of these cells by a bacterial inflammogen.

The researchers were able to confirm that CBD is highly effective in reducing microglial inflammatory responses.

« Contrarily to our expectation, the effect of CBD was mostly independent of cannabinoid receptors. In fact, we found that the suppressive action of CBD toward microglia resulted from an intrinsic antioxidant effect, which is self-reinforced by the capacity of this compound to limit glucose consumption, specifically in these cells. » explains Patrick Michel, last author of the study.

Actually, when accumulated in excess by microglial cells, glucose serves to regenerate NADPH, a substrate for an enzyme that controls oxidative stress and, ultimately, the synthesis/release of pro-inflammatory mediators by these cells. Overall, current data suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of CBD results from a dual inhibitory effect on oxidative stress and glucose metabolism.

Source

Cannabidiol prevents LPS-induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF-κB-dependent signaling and glucose consumption. Dos-Santos-Pereira M, Guimarães FS, Del-Bel E, Raisman-Vozari R, Michel PP. Glia. 2019 Oct 24.

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CALL FOR APPLICATIONS FOR A GROUP LEADER POSITION IN THE FIELD OF: BIOMARKERS OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, MULTIMODAL DATA INTEGRATION, OR IN SILICO DISEASE MODELING AT ICM IN PARIS, France https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/call-for-applications-for-a-group-leader-position-in-the-field-of-biomarkers-of-alzheimers-disease-multimodal-data-integration-or-in-silico-disease-modeling-at-icm-in-paris-france/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/call-for-applications-for-a-group-leader-position-in-the-field-of-biomarkers-of-alzheimers-disease-multimodal-data-integration-or-in-silico-disease-modeling-at-icm-in-paris-france/#respond Fri, 25 Oct 2019 14:24:57 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17758

ICM - Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (Brain and Spine Institute) - is an internationally renowned Neuroscience research institute located in For more information ]]>

ICM – Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (Brain and Spine Institute) – is an internationally renowned Neuroscience research institute located in Paris, France, on the campus of the Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital, providing world class expertise in basic and clinical neuroscience.

ICM is seeking to recruit a group leader in the field of in silico biomarker analysis in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias. The successful candidate will work in close interaction with ICM scientists and clinicians of the “Institute for Memory and Alzheimer Disease” (IM2A) at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital.

We welcome applications from early to mid-career investigators with a strong scientific track record in translational research. We are particularly interested in candidates whose research may concern biomarkers of AD and related dementias, multimodal data integration, or in silico disease modeling.

The successful candidate will benefit from a competitive start-up package, including the permanent AXA-Chair and a funding from Merck-Avenir Foundation, both dedicated to biomarkers of Alzheimer, space and recurrent core funding. Candidates will work in a stimulating and collaborative international environment with a facilitated access to well-structured cohorts in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Group leaders at the ICM are affiliated with the Neuroscience Ph.D. program of the Sorbonne Université. Skilled assistance for applications to national and international funding programs will be also provided (e.g. ERC, CNRS, Inserm, ANR, ATIP-Avenir, Equipes FRM).

ICM is home to 25 research teams bringing together more than 700 personnel, including 150 researchers, 200 technical staff and 300 students and post-docs. ICM laboratories use multiscale approaches from cellular and molecular neurobiology, neurophysiology, systems to cognitive neuroscience. ICM offers state-of the-art core facilities that support fundamental, preclinical and clinical research, including access to human tissue.

ICM is a private foundation working in synergy with French public bodies, and affiliated with Sorbonne Université, CNRS and INSERM. Importantly, ICM is associated with the Medical University Department (DMU) for the Diseases of the Nervous System of the Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital (APHP), as well as with a large network of public and industrial partners. ICM is dedicated to fundamental, translational and clinical research in Neuroscience, and fosters improved quality of care and education. Moreover, it hosts an in-house neuroscience clinical research center, spinoff, start-ups companies. ICM is located alongside 13 National Reference Centers at the Pitié-Salpêtrière for rare neurological diseases.

Expression of interest must include a 2-page CV, a complete list of publications highlighting up to five of the most significant papers, a brief description of achievements and future research (2 pages). Applications must be sent by January 15th 2020 to Dr. Alexandra Auffret at the following address: scientific.affairs@icm-institute.org

Short-listed applicants will be requested to send the full application proposal (attached file) including :

– Project title and summary and a list of up to five of the candidate’s most significant publications (limited 2 pages)

– Full CV including list of publications and invited presentations to conferences

– Description of the research project (no more than 10 pages)

– Names and contacts of at least three referees

Full applications must be sent by April 30th 2020 at the following address scientific.affairs@icm-institute.org. All applications will be reviewed by members of the Scientific Advisory Board of the institute and international experts in the field. Short-listed applicants will be invited for an interview and oral presentation in Paris in June 2020.

]]> https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/call-for-applications-for-a-group-leader-position-in-the-field-of-biomarkers-of-alzheimers-disease-multimodal-data-integration-or-in-silico-disease-modeling-at-icm-in-paris-france/feed/ 0 Julia Sliwa receives the Peter and Patricia Gruber Award https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/julia-sliwa-peter-and-patricia-award/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/julia-sliwa-peter-and-patricia-award/#respond Mon, 21 Oct 2019 14:14:47 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17749  Julia Sliwa, CNRS researcher at the ICM, received the Peter and Patricia Gruber International Award at the Society for Neuroscience meeting for her research.

The For more information ]]>  Julia Sliwa, CNRS researcher at the ICM, received the Peter and Patricia Gruber International Award at the Society for Neuroscience meeting for her research.

The Gruber Foundation presented the Peter and Patricia Gruber International Research Prize to Dr. Julia Sliwa, CNRS Research Fellow at ICM, and Dr. Antonio Fernandez-Ruiz from New York University. The award ceremony took place on October 20 in Chicago, at the Society for Neuroscience (SfN) conference.

This award recognizes two young neuroscientists for their outstanding work in an international context.

This award is given to Dr. Sliwa for the work carried out between 2012 and 2018 at the Rockefeller University of New York in Professor Freiwald’s laboratory. She discovered brain areas in monkeys modulated by social interactions in parts of the brain which support the most high-level forms of social cognition in humans: the attribution of mental states to others. She showed how social interactions modulate  brain areas dedicated to face perception and  proposed a new interpretation of the “mirror system network” that includes circuits recruited by both social and non-social content.

Julia Sliwa uses functional MRI, neurophysiological recordings and cross-species comparisons. Her research is now focused on our neural representations of social concepts and the understanding of gestures during social learning in physiological conditions and neurological disorders.

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How social expectations influence pain https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/how-social-expectations-influence-pain/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/how-social-expectations-influence-pain/#respond Mon, 21 Oct 2019 14:12:14 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17745 Pain is a very subjective sensation. The same condition could be experienced as excruciatingly painful by some people, while others will consider it as barely For more information ]]> Pain is a very subjective sensation. The same condition could be experienced as excruciatingly painful by some people, while others will consider it as barely painful. A study conducted by Leonie Koban, researcher in the team of Philippe Fossati and Liane Schmidt « Control – Interoception – Attention »at the ICM, showed that pain experience is influenced by one’s own learning experience, but also, and even more strongly so, by information coming from other people.  Brain imaging revealed that those two types of expectations—learned and social—were mediated through different brain networks. Results are published in Nature Communications.

 

Expectations influence our experiences. They can be generated from different sources. They can be based on what we have experienced or learned before, but also from what other people tell us. Positive comments on a restaurant or an exhibition will certainly modify your expectations on the said restaurant or exhibition. This is also true for sensations such as pain – think of medical procedures or events that are typically somewhat painful, such as childbirth. If others report a treatment or a procedure to be very or not very painful, it might influence one’s expectations about the procedure and also the experience of the pain itself. However, the mechanisms and brain systems involved remain unclear.

 

Leonie Koban and her collaborators employed two different stimuli to explore the effects of expectations on pain: a learning stimulus and a social stimulus. For the learning stimulus, they used a conditioning paradigm with one drawing of an animal and one drawing of a vehicle, each one predictive of a high or low pain stimulus. For the social stimulus, they showed the participants the pain ratings of other people, which could be either low or high on average, but did not predict the actual intensity of the upcoming pain stimulus. Then they applied painful heat different intensity. At the same time, they recorded brain activity using functional MRI.

 

« We knew before that expectations could influence pain but we didn’t really know how different sources of expectations might influence pain and whether different sources of expectations involve different brain mechanisms.  We were actually really surprised that the social information had such a huge influence on how people experienced pain, much bigger than learning by one’s own experience. Initially, we had thought that people would quickly realize that the social information was not actually predictive of the heat intensity and that they would not be influenced by it anymore. However, this is not what we observed. Instead, social influence remained strong throughout the experiment, even when people were presented with more predictive information about the upcoming pain. » explains Leonie Koban

 

Furthermore, they show that the brain systems mediating social influence effects and the effects of learning on pain are different. Learning effects are mediated by limbic areas and posterior brain regions such as the hippocampus, whereas social effects are mediated by prefrontal and parietal areas. This could suggest that social information bypasses learning networks and directly recruits brain networks involved in top-down control and attention.

 

« Overall, these results show the importance of both social and learned expectations for pain, and they illustrate the neural mechanisms behind it. Understanding how expectations, whether they come from social context or learning, shape our behavior and experience is crucial as they have important consequences for well-being and health outcomes in real life. » concludes Leonie Koban

 

Source

Different brain networks mediate the effects of social and conditioned expectations on pain.

Koban L, Jepma M, López-Solà M, Wager TD. Nat Commun. 2019 Sep 10.

 

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Master Class creativity https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/17017/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/17017/#respond Thu, 10 Oct 2019 10:00:25 +0000 Isabelle REBEIX https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17017 ICM proposes a wide range of different training and education programmes for the neuro-expert and the neuro-curious.

Education benefits innovation and individuals For more information ]]> ICM proposes a wide range of different training and education programmes for the neuro-expert and the neuro-curious.

Education benefits innovation and individuals and here at ICM, we believe it all starts with the brain.

What we know about the brain and how it works can be applied to so much more than fighting neurological diseases, it can be applied to how we can do better and innovate at-large.

For this reason, ICM proposes neuroscience-based training in soft skills for all who are neuro-curious.

Empower your employees with our new #NeuroscienceOfCreativity Master Class!

With ICM neuroscientists and guest experts from the Society for the Neuroscience of Creativity, we invite you to demystify creativity with us and make it work for you and your team.

Contact : Clarisse MARIE-LUCE – scientific.affairs@icm-institute.org

To learn more about creativity.

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Interview from Mathias PESSIGLIONE https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/interview-mathias-pessiglione-icm/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/interview-mathias-pessiglione-icm/#respond Fri, 27 Sep 2019 09:32:30 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17633 ICM team leader (INSERM researcher) who publish his work on excessive training load effect on brain in current Biology.

Neuro-computational impact of physical For more information ]]> ICM team leader (INSERM researcher) who publish his work on excessive training load effect on brain in current Biology.

Neuro-computational impact of physical training overload on economic decision-making

What are your main important findings?

We identified a specific signature of fatigue as described by triathletes after an excessive training load, which combine a reduced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex and a preference shift toward immediate rewards when tested for decision-making.

What is the original hypothesis leading to this project?

This study had been conducted in collaboration with INSEP, a national sport institute In France and funded by the French anti-doping agency. The fact that some athletes were victims of the so-called “overtraining syndrome” leading to performances plummet and an intense sensation of fatigue that they could not prevent, explain and cure, except trying to recover with doping practice motivate the INSEP, a national sport institute In France and the French anti-doping agency to solicit our team for his neuroscience expertise.

Our contribution was to suggest that overtraining could arise from a specific form of neural fatigue in the brain, which could also be induced by excessive intellectual work.

Did anything you found surprise you?

Our results suggests a bridge between mental and physical effort: both require cognitive control, which is regulated by the lateral prefrontal region shown by the team to be vulnerable to excessive cognitive work.

To maintain physical effort, to finish a race for example, you need to control the automatic process that makes you stop when muscles or articulations hurt.

What would you like for a general audience to take away from your work?

Overtraining load could affect your brain by inhibiting the activation of your prefrontal cortex leading to impulsive decisions more present-oriented.

What are implications of your findings?

You don’t make the same decision when your brain is in a fatigue state. This may be important to monitor fatigue level in order to prevent unsuitable decisions in economic, political and judicial domains. Those results may be useful for sport training but also for work management in general.

What’s next for you and this line of research?

We are currently testing the hypothesis that a regulation loop in the brain inactivate the cognitive control when it has already burned too many metabolic resources or accumulated too many metabolic wastes.

We plan to use MR spectroscopy in order to quantify brain metabolites during cognitive tasks. We also tend to identify appropriate treatments to prevent fatigue in the cognitive control system developing breaks appropriate sequences during work or medications such as dopamine, noradrenaline or serotonin known as neuromodulators.

source

 

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A single gene determines whether a fly has a good sense of sight or a good sense of smell https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/bassem-genetic-drosophila/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/bassem-genetic-drosophila/#respond Mon, 16 Sep 2019 11:57:46 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17530 Trade-offs in the sizes of visual and olfactory organs are a common feature of animal evolution, but the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms have not For more information ]]> Trade-offs in the sizes of visual and olfactory organs are a common feature of animal evolution, but the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms have not been clear. A study publishing August 22 in the journal Development Cell reveals that a single DNA variant that affects the timing of sensory organ development in fruit flies could explain the size trade-off between eyes and antennae, potentially providing a quick route to behavioral changes and adaptation.

 

Because the affected gene, eyeless/Pax6, is conserved across invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans, the discovery could represent a general mechanism for sensory organ size trade-offs across the animal kingdom.

 

The senses animals rely on have been shaped through evolution to better navigate and exploit the environment. As a result, even closely related species living in different ecological niches show variation in the sizes and shapes of their sensory structures. In arthropods such as fruit flies, trade-offs between the size of the eyes and of the antennae, where most olfactory organs are located, are pervasive.

 

“What we demonstrate is that there are consequences to subtle changes in the conserved mechanisms that govern how these sense organs develop,” says senior study author Bassem Hassan of Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (ICM). “What this means more broadly is that one cannot fully understand how genetic variation and morphological variation relate to each other without understanding the developmental processes that translate the former into the latter.”

 

To examine the underlying mechanisms, Hassan and first author Ariane Ramaekers of Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (ICM) combined comparative analyses of different fruit fly strains and species with developmental, molecular, and genome-editing approaches. Specifically, the authors focused on a structure called the eye-antennal imaginal disc (EAD), which consists of an eye field and a non-eye field and gives rise to all external head sensory organs during fruit fly development.

Hassan and Ramaekers found that the eye field is proportionally larger in Drosophila pseudoobscura (D. pse.) compared to Drosophila melanogaster (D. mel.), corresponding to a 35% increase in the number of ommatidia—small units that make up the insect compound eye. Similarly, the eye field is proportionally larger in the D. mel. strain called Canton-S compared with the D. mel. strain Hikone-AS, corresponding to a 12.5% increase in ommatidia number.

 

“These data suggest that, despite 17 to 30 million years of separated evolution between the two species groups, ommatidia number variation between D. mel. and D. pse. and between two D. mel. strains share a common developmental logic,” Hassan says.

Heads from D. melanogaster (top) and D. pseudoobscura (bottom) show different proportions of eyes and antennae. (Image credit: A. Ramaekers and N. Grillenzoni).

To search for genetic causes of eye size variation, the researchers next examined DNA sequences that transcription factors bind to regulate the expression of the neighboring eyeless/Pax6 gene. They found that a single nucleotide variant—a G>A substitution—at a binding site that differentiates the small eye subspecies from the large eye subspecies. The G allele in small eye subspecies is predicted to have a higher affinity for the binding site, resulting in greater repression of eyeless/Pax6 gene expression compared to the A allele in the large eye subspecies.

 

Additional analyses showed that this variant occurs in natural fruit fly populations, and the A allele corresponds to both more ommatidia and smaller antennal width among different laboratory strains. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce the A allele into a G-homozygous stock, the researchers demonstrated that the G>A substitution causes an increase in the number of ommatidia.

 

“We were surprised by the simplicity of the mechanism of sensory trade-offs that we identified: To vary sensory organ size—in this case, eye versus antennae—it suffices to slightly vary the expression of a single gene,” Ramaekers says. “It was particularly satisfactory to find that this gene, called Pax6, is the same one that builds the eye in all animals, including humans. We were also surprised that what matters to generate a trade-off is to change when, rather than where, Pax6 ends up being expressed. To make the eye bigger or smaller, it is sufficient to slightly speed up or slow down the subdivision of the head primordium into eye versus non-eye territories.”

 

Different temporal regulation of ey/PAX6 from D. melanogaster (left) and D. pseudoobscura (right). During the late second larval stage, the activity of ey/PAX6 enhancer from D. pseudoobscura, visualized by the expression of a reporter gene (in green, GFP), has almost entirely disappeared from the non-eye portion of the EAD (labelled in magenta, ct immunostaining). In contrast, at the same developmental stage, the D.melanogaster enhancer activity is still detected in this compartment. (Image credit: A. Ramaekers).

For the authors, the findings raise several intriguing questions. For example, it’s not yet clear how the single-nucleotide variant changes the timing of Pax6 expression and sensory organ development. Moreover, it’s possible that controlling the timing of the expression of key developmental genes could be a general rule for changing the size of a tissue or organ. Another interesting question is whether sensory brain regions are affected by changes in the relative sizes of sensory organs.

###

This work is supported by VIB, the Belspo WiBrain Interuniversity Attraction Pole network, Fonds Wetenschappelijke Onderzoeks (FWO), the Institut Hospitalier Universitaire (IHU), the Institut du Cerveau et de la Moëlle Epinière (ICM), the FLiACT Marie Curie ITN, and a Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) grant.

Developmental Cell, Ramaekers et al.: “Altering the temporal regulation of one transcription factor drives evolutionary trade-offs between head sensory organs” https://www.cell.com/developmental-cell/fulltext/S1534-5807(19)30658-6DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.07.027

 

 

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Inhibitory autapses: essential structures to synchronize a prominent type of cortical neuron with cognitive-relevant network activity https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/inhibitory-autapses-essential-structures-to-synchronize-a-prominent-type-of-cortical-neuron-with-cognitive-relevant-network-activity/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/inhibitory-autapses-essential-structures-to-synchronize-a-prominent-type-of-cortical-neuron-with-cognitive-relevant-network-activity/#respond Thu, 12 Sep 2019 12:29:23 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17489 A study conducted by Alberto BACCI’s (CNRS) team at the ICM showed that a specific type of inhibitory neuron of the cerebral cortex makes a large number of For more information ]]> A study conducted by Alberto BACCI’s (CNRS) team at the ICM showed that a specific type of inhibitory neuron of the cerebral cortex makes a large number of synapses with themselves (autapses).  Autaptic self-inhibition is much stronger than inhibition that these cells provide to other neurons within the cortical circuit. This mechanism influences the coupling between these cells and gamma-oscillations, a brain rhythm that is crucial for sensory perception, attention, memory and other cognitive-related processes. These results are published in PLoS Biology.

In the cerebral cortex, PV (parvalbumin) basket cells represent a prominent subtype of inhibitory neurons that play several important functions during cortical activity. These cells are known as the ‘metronomes’ of neuronal networks, because they set the tempo and synchronize many neurons, driving several forms of brain oscillations important for cognitive functions, such as sensory perception, memory and attention.

Neurons communicate with each other via synaptic contacts (synapses), which are specialized structures usually connecting two neurons sitting either at distant locations or within the local microcircuits.

A study conducted by Alberto BACCI’s team at the ICM found that autapses in PV cells are very common and powerful: about 70% of PV cells exhibited autaptic transmission – and that they generate huge functional inhibitory responses.

We found that PV basket cells make multiple autapses onto themselves and provide a very powerful and fast self-inhibition of PV cells but up to now the strength and impact of this autaptic inhibition in cortical circuits were neglected. That’s why the first important step was to quantify this auto-inhibition” explains Charlotte DELEUZE, first author of the study.

To this aim, they considered the two major synaptic partners of PV cells within cortical circuits: pyramidal neurons (PNs) and other PV cells, and measured the strength of autaptic self-inhibition compared to the synaptic inhibition from the same PV cells onto other targets. They show that, autaptic responses are much stronger than synaptic transmission with PNs (three-fold larger) and other PV cells (2-fold larger). Using a novel analytical approach, developed by a collaborating laboratory directed by Marco BEATO in UCL, London, they found that at PV-PN connections, autaptic transmission is stronger because of a higher post-synaptic sensitivity. Conversely, at PV-PV connections, autapses dominated due to a larger number of autaptic release sites.

After showing that autapses produce a stronger inhibition than synapses, the major question was the extent of this inhibition. A single PV cell receives many inputs from other PV cells and from itself. How much do these autapses account for the overall inhibition these cells receive?” continues Alberto BACCI, team leader at the ICM.

Using two different approaches, the team showed that about 40% of the global inhibition received by those neurons come from their own autaptic connections.

PV cells are known to drive gamma oscillation (30-80 Hz), like a metronome. During gamma oscillations, what is the role of autapses? We hypothesized that autapses play a role in keeping PV cells in sync with gamma oscillations. To test that, we generated this type of oscillations artificially using optogenetics.” says Charlotte DELEUZE.

 

The team found that blocking autapses in single PV cells strongly modify the degree of synchronization of these neurons to gamma oscillations. Without autapses, the spiking activity generated by PV neurons is more randomly distributed, desynchronized with the phase of oscillations, making everything noisier and less precise. Spike timing is essential for the correct flow of information between networks.

 

Autaptic self-inhibition of PV cells could therefore be an important mechanism underlying the key role of these cells during sensory processing and other important cognitive functions, with possible crucial consequences in both physiological and pathological cortical operations.

 

 

Source

Deleuze C, Bhumbra GS, Pazienti A, Lourenço J, Mailhes C, Aguirre A, Beato M, Bacci A.

Strong preference for autaptic self-connectivity of neocortical PV interneurons

facilitates their tuning to γ-oscillations. PLoS Biol. 2019 Sep 4;17(9):e3000419. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000419.eCollection 2019 Sep.

 

 

 

 

 

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Summer School 2019 – Brain to Market https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/summer-school-2019-brain-to-market-2/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/summer-school-2019-brain-to-market-2/#respond Thu, 12 Sep 2019 08:32:09 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17481 Looking back to the Brain to Market Summer School, a program  combining neuroscience and entrepreneurship training.

Once again, this year, the ICM has organized a 5 For more information ]]> Looking back to the Brain to Market Summer School, a program  combining neuroscience and entrepreneurship training.

Once again, this year, the ICM has organized a 5 days meeting with neuroscience and entrepreneurship courses. The program, conducted in English, aims to develop mind-set and skills needed to innovate in health care and research fields.

Last week, more than 36 students and employees from different origins joined the Brain to Market Summer School, dedicated this year to post stroke rehabilitation.

In order to provide a high quality training, different profiles had been selected to participate to this session: scientists, engineers, sales representative, but also designers. This huge diversity of participants, both in skills and origins, substantially enhanced the program.

After a 2 days of intense training, and 2 days of work in groups, participants were able to present their team project.  This year, the lucky winners have been selected for their interactive wall project! Congratulations!

We will keep you informed soon but we want there to thanks stakeholders, coachs, and all the team for their involvement.

Thank you also to our sponsors SBT and Medtronic for their support during this 2019 session.

SBT Medtronic

]]> https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/summer-school-2019-brain-to-market-2/feed/ 0 THE BRAIN TO MARKET SUMMER SCHOOL https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-brain-to-market-summer-school/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-brain-to-market-summer-school/#respond Thu, 05 Sep 2019 07:52:53 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17433 Executive Summary

The Brain to MarketSummer School is a program combining translationalneuroscience and entrepreneurship training in a boot-camp format. At the For more information ]]> Executive Summary

The Brain to MarketSummer School is a program combining translationalneuroscience and entrepreneurship training in a boot-camp format. At the Institut du Cerveau et de la Moëlle épinière (Paris, France), a 5 days meeting with neuroscience and entrepreneurship courses (all in English) are offered to researchers and engineers from both national and international origins.The Brain to Market Summer School is an executive education program that will leave participants with a new mind-set and the skills needed to innovate and make a real difference for patients, research, development and health care systems.

 

Key facts:

  • 50 sites for all profiles of participants: Scientists (PhD, Post-doc, MD), Engineers, Executives, Designers
  • A unique combo training: neuropathology and entrepreneurship
  • A bootcamp format: multidisciplinary groups to share knowledge in an efficient way
  • Moonshot projects: propose a project submitted to a jury

 

 

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