Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière https://icm-institute.org Fri, 20 Sep 2019 14:55:27 +0000 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.8.2 hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.8.2 A single gene determines whether a fly has a good sense of sight or a good sense of smell https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/bassem-genetic-drosophila/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/bassem-genetic-drosophila/#respond Mon, 16 Sep 2019 11:57:46 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17530 Trade-offs in the sizes of visual and olfactory organs are a common feature of animal evolution, but the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms have not For more information ]]> Trade-offs in the sizes of visual and olfactory organs are a common feature of animal evolution, but the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms have not been clear. A study publishing August 22 in the journal Development Cell reveals that a single DNA variant that affects the timing of sensory organ development in fruit flies could explain the size trade-off between eyes and antennae, potentially providing a quick route to behavioral changes and adaptation.

 

Because the affected gene, eyeless/Pax6, is conserved across invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans, the discovery could represent a general mechanism for sensory organ size trade-offs across the animal kingdom.

 

The senses animals rely on have been shaped through evolution to better navigate and exploit the environment. As a result, even closely related species living in different ecological niches show variation in the sizes and shapes of their sensory structures. In arthropods such as fruit flies, trade-offs between the size of the eyes and of the antennae, where most olfactory organs are located, are pervasive.

 

“What we demonstrate is that there are consequences to subtle changes in the conserved mechanisms that govern how these sense organs develop,” says senior study author Bassem Hassan of Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (ICM). “What this means more broadly is that one cannot fully understand how genetic variation and morphological variation relate to each other without understanding the developmental processes that translate the former into the latter.”

 

To examine the underlying mechanisms, Hassan and first author Ariane Ramaekers of Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (ICM) combined comparative analyses of different fruit fly strains and species with developmental, molecular, and genome-editing approaches. Specifically, the authors focused on a structure called the eye-antennal imaginal disc (EAD), which consists of an eye field and a non-eye field and gives rise to all external head sensory organs during fruit fly development.

Hassan and Ramaekers found that the eye field is proportionally larger in Drosophila pseudoobscura (D. pse.) compared to Drosophila melanogaster (D. mel.), corresponding to a 35% increase in the number of ommatidia—small units that make up the insect compound eye. Similarly, the eye field is proportionally larger in the D. mel. strain called Canton-S compared with the D. mel. strain Hikone-AS, corresponding to a 12.5% increase in ommatidia number.

 

“These data suggest that, despite 17 to 30 million years of separated evolution between the two species groups, ommatidia number variation between D. mel. and D. pse. and between two D. mel. strains share a common developmental logic,” Hassan says.

Heads from D. melanogaster (top) and D. pseudoobscura (bottom) show different proportions of eyes and antennae. (Image credit: A. Ramaekers and N. Grillenzoni).

To search for genetic causes of eye size variation, the researchers next examined DNA sequences that transcription factors bind to regulate the expression of the neighboring eyeless/Pax6 gene. They found that a single nucleotide variant—a G>A substitution—at a binding site that differentiates the small eye subspecies from the large eye subspecies. The G allele in small eye subspecies is predicted to have a higher affinity for the binding site, resulting in greater repression of eyeless/Pax6 gene expression compared to the A allele in the large eye subspecies.

 

Additional analyses showed that this variant occurs in natural fruit fly populations, and the A allele corresponds to both more ommatidia and smaller antennal width among different laboratory strains. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce the A allele into a G-homozygous stock, the researchers demonstrated that the G>A substitution causes an increase in the number of ommatidia.

 

“We were surprised by the simplicity of the mechanism of sensory trade-offs that we identified: To vary sensory organ size—in this case, eye versus antennae—it suffices to slightly vary the expression of a single gene,” Ramaekers says. “It was particularly satisfactory to find that this gene, called Pax6, is the same one that builds the eye in all animals, including humans. We were also surprised that what matters to generate a trade-off is to change when, rather than where, Pax6 ends up being expressed. To make the eye bigger or smaller, it is sufficient to slightly speed up or slow down the subdivision of the head primordium into eye versus non-eye territories.”

 

Different temporal regulation of ey/PAX6 from D. melanogaster (left) and D. pseudoobscura (right). During the late second larval stage, the activity of ey/PAX6 enhancer from D. pseudoobscura, visualized by the expression of a reporter gene (in green, GFP), has almost entirely disappeared from the non-eye portion of the EAD (labelled in magenta, ct immunostaining). In contrast, at the same developmental stage, the D.melanogaster enhancer activity is still detected in this compartment. (Image credit: A. Ramaekers).

For the authors, the findings raise several intriguing questions. For example, it’s not yet clear how the single-nucleotide variant changes the timing of Pax6 expression and sensory organ development. Moreover, it’s possible that controlling the timing of the expression of key developmental genes could be a general rule for changing the size of a tissue or organ. Another interesting question is whether sensory brain regions are affected by changes in the relative sizes of sensory organs.

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This work is supported by VIB, the Belspo WiBrain Interuniversity Attraction Pole network, Fonds Wetenschappelijke Onderzoeks (FWO), the Institut Hospitalier Universitaire (IHU), the Institut du Cerveau et de la Moëlle Epinière (ICM), the FLiACT Marie Curie ITN, and a Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) grant.

Developmental Cell, Ramaekers et al.: “Altering the temporal regulation of one transcription factor drives evolutionary trade-offs between head sensory organs” https://www.cell.com/developmental-cell/fulltext/S1534-5807(19)30658-6DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.07.027

 

 

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Inhibitory autapses: essential structures to synchronize a prominent type of cortical neuron with cognitive-relevant network activity https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/inhibitory-autapses-essential-structures-to-synchronize-a-prominent-type-of-cortical-neuron-with-cognitive-relevant-network-activity/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/inhibitory-autapses-essential-structures-to-synchronize-a-prominent-type-of-cortical-neuron-with-cognitive-relevant-network-activity/#respond Thu, 12 Sep 2019 12:29:23 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17489 A study conducted by Alberto BACCI’s (CNRS) team at the ICM showed that a specific type of inhibitory neuron of the cerebral cortex makes a large number of For more information ]]> A study conducted by Alberto BACCI’s (CNRS) team at the ICM showed that a specific type of inhibitory neuron of the cerebral cortex makes a large number of synapses with themselves (autapses).  Autaptic self-inhibition is much stronger than inhibition that these cells provide to other neurons within the cortical circuit. This mechanism influences the coupling between these cells and gamma-oscillations, a brain rhythm that is crucial for sensory perception, attention, memory and other cognitive-related processes. These results are published in PLoS Biology.

In the cerebral cortex, PV (parvalbumin) basket cells represent a prominent subtype of inhibitory neurons that play several important functions during cortical activity. These cells are known as the ‘metronomes’ of neuronal networks, because they set the tempo and synchronize many neurons, driving several forms of brain oscillations important for cognitive functions, such as sensory perception, memory and attention.

Neurons communicate with each other via synaptic contacts (synapses), which are specialized structures usually connecting two neurons sitting either at distant locations or within the local microcircuits.

A study conducted by Alberto BACCI’s team at the ICM found that autapses in PV cells are very common and powerful: about 70% of PV cells exhibited autaptic transmission – and that they generate huge functional inhibitory responses.

We found that PV basket cells make multiple autapses onto themselves and provide a very powerful and fast self-inhibition of PV cells but up to now the strength and impact of this autaptic inhibition in cortical circuits were neglected. That’s why the first important step was to quantify this auto-inhibition” explains Charlotte DELEUZE, first author of the study.

To this aim, they considered the two major synaptic partners of PV cells within cortical circuits: pyramidal neurons (PNs) and other PV cells, and measured the strength of autaptic self-inhibition compared to the synaptic inhibition from the same PV cells onto other targets. They show that, autaptic responses are much stronger than synaptic transmission with PNs (three-fold larger) and other PV cells (2-fold larger). Using a novel analytical approach, developed by a collaborating laboratory directed by Marco BEATO in UCL, London, they found that at PV-PN connections, autaptic transmission is stronger because of a higher post-synaptic sensitivity. Conversely, at PV-PV connections, autapses dominated due to a larger number of autaptic release sites.

After showing that autapses produce a stronger inhibition than synapses, the major question was the extent of this inhibition. A single PV cell receives many inputs from other PV cells and from itself. How much do these autapses account for the overall inhibition these cells receive?” continues Alberto BACCI, team leader at the ICM.

Using two different approaches, the team showed that about 40% of the global inhibition received by those neurons come from their own autaptic connections.

PV cells are known to drive gamma oscillation (30-80 Hz), like a metronome. During gamma oscillations, what is the role of autapses? We hypothesized that autapses play a role in keeping PV cells in sync with gamma oscillations. To test that, we generated this type of oscillations artificially using optogenetics.” says Charlotte DELEUZE.

 

The team found that blocking autapses in single PV cells strongly modify the degree of synchronization of these neurons to gamma oscillations. Without autapses, the spiking activity generated by PV neurons is more randomly distributed, desynchronized with the phase of oscillations, making everything noisier and less precise. Spike timing is essential for the correct flow of information between networks.

 

Autaptic self-inhibition of PV cells could therefore be an important mechanism underlying the key role of these cells during sensory processing and other important cognitive functions, with possible crucial consequences in both physiological and pathological cortical operations.

 

 

Source

Deleuze C, Bhumbra GS, Pazienti A, Lourenço J, Mailhes C, Aguirre A, Beato M, Bacci A.

Strong preference for autaptic self-connectivity of neocortical PV interneurons

facilitates their tuning to γ-oscillations. PLoS Biol. 2019 Sep 4;17(9):e3000419. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000419.eCollection 2019 Sep.

 

 

 

 

 

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Summer School 2019 – Brain to Market https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/summer-school-2019-brain-to-market-2/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/summer-school-2019-brain-to-market-2/#respond Thu, 12 Sep 2019 08:32:09 +0000 Margaux Orsini https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17481 Looking back to the Brain to Market Summer School, a program  combining neuroscience and entrepreneurship training.

Once again, this year, the ICM has organized a 5 For more information ]]> Looking back to the Brain to Market Summer School, a program  combining neuroscience and entrepreneurship training.

Once again, this year, the ICM has organized a 5 days meeting with neuroscience and entrepreneurship courses. The program, conducted in English, aims to develop mind-set and skills needed to innovate in health care and research fields.

Last week, more than 36 students and employees from different origins joined the Brain to Market Summer School, dedicated this year to post stroke rehabilitation.

In order to provide a high quality training, different profiles had been selected to participate to this session: scientists, engineers, sales representative, but also designers. This huge diversity of participants, both in skills and origins, substantially enhanced the program.

After a 2 days of intense training, and 2 days of work in groups, participants were able to present their team project.  This year, the lucky winners have been selected for their interactive wall project! Congratulations!

We will keep you informed soon but we want there to thanks stakeholders, coachs, and all the team for their involvement.

Thank you also to our sponsors SBT and Medtronic for their support during this 2019 session.

SBT Medtronic

]]> https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/summer-school-2019-brain-to-market-2/feed/ 0 THE BRAIN TO MARKET SUMMER SCHOOL https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-brain-to-market-summer-school/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-brain-to-market-summer-school/#respond Thu, 05 Sep 2019 07:52:53 +0000 Ignacio Colmenero https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17433 Executive Summary

The Brain to MarketSummer School is a program combining translationalneuroscience and entrepreneurship training in a boot-camp format. At the For more information ]]> Executive Summary

The Brain to MarketSummer School is a program combining translationalneuroscience and entrepreneurship training in a boot-camp format. At the Institut du Cerveau et de la Moëlle épinière (Paris, France), a 5 days meeting with neuroscience and entrepreneurship courses (all in English) are offered to researchers and engineers from both national and international origins.The Brain to Market Summer School is an executive education program that will leave participants with a new mind-set and the skills needed to innovate and make a real difference for patients, research, development and health care systems.

 

Key facts:

  • 50 sites for all profiles of participants: Scientists (PhD, Post-doc, MD), Engineers, Executives, Designers
  • A unique combo training: neuropathology and entrepreneurship
  • A bootcamp format: multidisciplinary groups to share knowledge in an efficient way
  • Moonshot projects: propose a project submitted to a jury

 

 

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Annual report 2018 https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/annual-report-2018/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/annual-report-2018/#respond Tue, 30 Jul 2019 13:00:43 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17328

We have the pleasure to communicate herewith the 2018 Annual report of the Brain and Spine Institute.

 

This report renders all the activites performed by the ICM For more information ]]>

We have the pleasure to communicate herewith the 2018 Annual report of the Brain and Spine Institute.

 

This report renders all the activites performed by the ICM last year. You will notably find our highlights, the presentation of all the research teams that work together to understand and find novel treatments for disorders of the nervous system, our main scientific advances as well as the financial report and the communication events.

 

The year of 2018 has been rich from the successes of our teams at a national and international scale, with an always growing number of scientific publications and prestigious awards. The ICM is one of its kind, a place open to all. More than ever, we need to decompartmentalise, to develop creativity, to focus on cooperation and collaboration, and share our expertise. Thanks to this cohesion, we will be able to pursue the strong ambitions that are ours for the next few years.

 

We wish you a pleasant read.

 

Yours faithfully,

 

Pr. Alexis Brice, Director General of  the ICM.

 

> Annual report  2018

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Catherine Lubetzki receives the Charcot Award 2019 https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/catherine-lubetzki-receives-the-charcot-award-2019/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/catherine-lubetzki-receives-the-charcot-award-2019/#respond Thu, 25 Jul 2019 08:00:20 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17308 Professor Catherine Lubetzki, co-head of the team “Repair in multiple sclerosis: from biology to clinical translation “at ICM, receives the Charcot Award from For more information ]]> Professor Catherine Lubetzki, co-head of the team “Repair in multiple sclerosis: from biology to clinical translation “at ICM, receives the Charcot Award from the Multiple Sclerosis International Federation (MSIF).

 

The MSIF, Multiple Sclerosis International Federation, has given its prestigious prize, the Charcot Award 2019, to Professor Catherine Lubetzki, professor of Neurology at the Sorbonne University, head of the department of neurological diseases in Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital and co-head of the team “Repair in multiple sclerosis: from biology to clinical translation “at ICM.

 

Awarded every two years, this prize acknowledges lifetime achievement for outstanding research into the understanding and treatment of MS. Professor Lubetzki is also the first woman to receive this award. The work of her team focuses on the understanding of the mechanisms of myelination and remyelination in the central nervous system and on the development of therapeutic strategies to promote remyelination in patients with multiple sclerosis.

 

« It is such an honour to be chosen for the Charcot Award, which I take with humility and great appreciation. I believe that this Award recognises my combined focus on both clinical practice and basic science research in the field of repair in multiple sclerosis. I hope that this recognition will encourage junior clinician-scientists, whose double expertise is crucial to the development of innovative translational research. »

 

The award will be presented to Professor Lubetzki during the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) meeting in Stockholm (11-13 September 2019) where she will give the biennial Charcot Lecture.

 

For more information : https://www.msif.org/news/2019/07/18/professor-catherine-lubetzki-picks-up-the-mantle-for-prestigious-ms-charcot-award/

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The ICM, partner in two projects of hospital-university research https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-icm-partner-in-two-projects-of-hospital-university-research/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-icm-partner-in-two-projects-of-hospital-university-research/#respond Sat, 29 Jun 2019 07:00:24 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17191 Agnès BUZYN, Minister of Solidarities and Health, Frédérique VIDAL, Minister of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, and Guillaume BOUDY, general secretary For more information ]]> Agnès BUZYN, Minister of Solidarities and Health, Frédérique VIDAL, Minister of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, and Guillaume BOUDY, general secretary of investment, have announced the 15 laureates of the fourth call for hospital-university research (RHU) projects. Two amongst them are made in partnership with the Brain and Spine Institute.

 

The “investment in the future” program’s call for “Hospital-university research in health” (RHU) projects, operated by the National Agency of Research, aims to support innovative research projects of great amplitude in the health sector. The RHU projects join academic, hospital and entrepreneurial sectors for funding from 5 to 10M€.

 

For this fourth call for projects, 67 proposals were examined by an international jury. The scientific and innovative quality was evaluated but also the potential medical and socio-economic benefits.

 

15 projects covering a variety of different therapeutic areas and medical needs were selected.

 

The ICM is in partnership with two of them:

 

The COSY project (9 423 907 €), carried out by Dr Guillaume Canaud and involving Stéphanie Baulac (Inserm), team leader at the ICM, proposes to “develop new therapies to treat a rare disease: the syndrome of disharmonious hypergrowth”.

 

The BETPSY project (7 381 509 €), led by Jérôme Honnorat, with the collaboration of Dr Agusti Alentorn of the Experimental Neuro-oncology team, tackles the topic of “encephalitis and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes caused by auto-immune reactions”. The objective is to “develop diagnostic tools for these disorders and therefore improve patient care”.

 

 

More information on: https://solidarites-sante.gouv.fr/actualites/presse/communiques-de-presse/article/15-nouveaux-laureats-et-121meur-pour-le-quatrieme-appel-a-projets-recherche

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EEG evidence of compensatory mechanisms in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/eeg-evidence-of-compensatory-mechanisms-in-preclinical-alzheimers-disease/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/eeg-evidence-of-compensatory-mechanisms-in-preclinical-alzheimers-disease/#respond Tue, 25 Jun 2019 14:06:26 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17166 Early biomarkers are needed to identify individuals at high risk of preclinical Alzheimer's disease and to better understand the pathophysiological processes of For more information ]]> Early biomarkers are needed to identify individuals at high risk of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease and to better understand the pathophysiological processes of disease progression. Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease EEG changes would be non-invasive and cheap screening tools and could also help to predict future progression to clinical Alzheimer’s disease. However, the impact of amyloid-β deposition and neurodegeneration on EEG biomarkers needs to be elucidated.

 

A study conducted by Sinead Gaubert and Stéphane Epelbaum at ICM, included participants from the INSIGHT-preAD cohort, which is an ongoing single-centre multimodal observational study that was designed to identify risk factors and markers of progression to clinical Alzheimer’s disease in 318 cognitively normal individuals aged 70-85 years with a subjective memory complaint. They divided the subjects into four groups, according to their amyloid status (based on 18F-florbetapir PET) and neurodegeneration status (evidenced by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET brain metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease signature regions). The first group was amyloid-positive and neurodegeneration-positive, which corresponds to stage 2 of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. The second group was amyloid-positive and neurodegeneration-negative, which corresponds to stage 1 of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. The third group was amyloid-negative and neurodegeneration-positive, which corresponds to ‘suspected non-Alzheimer’s pathophysiology’. The last group was the control group, defined by amyloid-negative and neurodegeneration-negative subjects.

 

Researchers analysed 314 baseline 256-channel high-density eyes closed 1-min resting state EEG recordings. EEG biomarkers included spectral measures, algorithmic complexity and functional connectivity assessed with a novel information-theoretic measure, weighted symbolic mutual information. The most prominent effects of neurodegeneration on EEG metrics were localized in frontocentral regions with an increase in high frequency oscillations (higher beta and gamma power) and a decrease in low frequency oscillations (lower delta power), higher spectral entropy, higher complexity and increased functional connectivity measured by weighted symbolic mutual information in theta band. Neurodegeneration was associated with a widespread increase of median spectral frequency. They found a non-linear relationship between amyloid burden and EEG metrics in neurodegeneration-positive subjects, either following a U-shape curve for delta power or an inverted U-shape curve for the other metrics, meaning that EEG patterns are modulated differently depending on the degree of amyloid burden.

 

This finding suggests initial compensatory mechanisms that are overwhelmed for the highest amyloid load. Together, these results indicate that EEG metrics are useful biomarkers for the preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Abstract of the article

 

> Find the study published in the journal Brain.

 

Source

EEG evidence of compensatory mechanisms in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease.

Gaubert S, Raimondo F, Houot M, Corsi MC, Naccache L, Diego Sitt J, Hermann B, Oudiette D, Gagliardi G, Habert MO, Dubois B, De Vico Fallani F, Bakardjian H, Epelbaum S; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, MEMENTO study group and the INSIGHT-preAD study group. Brain. 2019 Jun 18.

 

 

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Claire Wyart elected as EMBO member https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/claire-wyart-elected-as-embo-member/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/claire-wyart-elected-as-embo-member/#respond Wed, 19 Jun 2019 07:50:39 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=16981  

EMBO, the European Molecular Biology Organization has announced today 56 scientists elected as new member. Claire Wyart, Inserm director of research and team For more information ]]>  

EMBO, the European Molecular Biology Organization has announced today 56 scientists elected as new member. Claire Wyart, Inserm director of research and team leader at the ICM is one of them. 

 

On June 11, 2019, EMBO announced that 56 life scientists have been elected to become member, thereby joining a group of more than 1800 of the best researchers in Europe and around the world. Claire Wyart, leader of the “Sensory Spinal Signaling ”team at ICM-Brain and Spinal Cord Institute, is one of the newly elected members.

 

« The election to become an EMBO member is a true honor for me, as I deeply respect the community of EMBO members for their accomplishment throughout the field of biology and for their continuous efforts to improve the way we do science and biology. I come from the field of biophysics and currently investigate how the nervous system interacts with multiple other organs (the immune system, bones and muscles) to find symmetry during development and build the host defense.  With this constant interdisciplinarity in my career path, becoming a full EMBO member provides a fantastic opportunity to reach out many experts in the diverse fields of molecular biology. This election is also an opportunity to stand for the values I want to promote in science and connect with the challenges that biodiversity and the human species are encountering on our planet. » Claire Wyart

 

 

EMBO is an organization relying on leading researchers to promote excellence in the life sciences in Europe and beyond. The major goals of the organization are to support talented researchers at all stages of their careers, stimulate the exchange of scientific information, and help build a research environment where scientists can achieve their best work.

 

EMBO Members actively participate in the execution of the organization’s initiatives by serving on Council, committees and editorial boards, by evaluating applications for EMBO funding, by mentoring young scientists and by providing suggestions and feedback on activities.

 

“EMBO Members are excellent scientists who conduct research at the forefront of all life science disciplines, ranging from computational models or analyses of single molecules and cellular mechanics to the study of higher-order systems in development, cognitive neuroscience and evolution,” says EMBO Director Maria Leptin.

 

 

For more information: www.embo.org

 

See EMBO press release : https://www.embo.org/news/press-releases/2019/embo-elects-56-new-members

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Caffeine and the Dyskinesia Related to Mutations in the ADCY5 Gene https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/caffeine-and-the-dyskinesia-related-to-mutations-in-the-adcy5-gene/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/caffeine-and-the-dyskinesia-related-to-mutations-in-the-adcy5-gene/#respond Tue, 18 Jun 2019 10:03:12 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17076  

A team from the department of neurology of the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital-APHP and the ICM, led by Prof Emmanuel FLAMAND-ROZE and Dr Aurélie MENERET, showed For more information ]]>  

A team from the department of neurology of the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital-APHP and the ICM, led by Prof Emmanuel FLAMAND-ROZE and Dr Aurélie MENERET, showed the positive effect of coffee in dyskinesia caused by a mutation of ADCY5 gene, in a 11-year-old child. Results are published in Annals of internal medicine.

 

The gene ADCY5codes for adenylate cyclase type 5. Some mutations in this gene lead to ADCY5-related dyskinesia, a rare hyperkinetic movement disorder with onset in childhood (1). This condition is characterized by pleiotropic paroxysmal dyskinesia with marked fluctuations (2). No effective treatment exists. Among the patients in whom this disorder was diagnosed are a father and daughter with diurnal and nocturnal paroxysmal dyskinesia, who declared they can prevent their dyskinesia episodes by drinking coffee. For example, the father said that he would never go to bed without drinking coffee; otherwise, he would be awakened by dyskinesia.

To report the effect of coffee in an unrelated patient with ADCY5-related dyskinesia and to describe the rationale supporting its use.

 

The team diagnosed ADCY5-related dyskinesia in an 11-year-old boy. His mother’s pregnancy, his birth, and his early development were unremarkable. At the age of 3 years, he began having diurnal and nocturnal episodes of hyperkinetic involuntary movements of his face and upper limbs, lasting from a few seconds to 10 minutes. Some episodes were triggered by sudden movement, others were exercise induced, and a few were spontaneous. Neurologic examination between episodes was normal except for fleeting choreo-dystonic movements. At age 11, the patient was having approximately 30 episodes per day, and he had difficulty riding a bike and performing some activities of daily living that require fine motor skills. These problems caused substantial disruptions in his life. For example, he had trouble writing in class and could not walk home from school or participate in sports. The co-occurrence of several types of paroxysmal dyskinesia in this patient led us to start genetic testing by looking for mutations in the SLC2A1(solute carrier family 2 member 1) and ADCY5genes. Although genetic analysis found no mutations in SLC2A1, we observed a mosaic heterozygous mutation in ADCY5(c.2088+1G>A) that previously was reported as pathogenic (4).

 

Doctors prescribed coffee. The boy’s parents were not surprised, because coffee is a commonly used medicine for ailments in children and adults in Madagascar, their country of origin. Treatment started with 1 cup of espresso (approximately 100 mg of caffeine) in the morning, which produced a dramatic response that began in 45 minutes and lasted for 7 hours. With a second cup of espresso in the afternoon and half a cup at bedtime, the boy had nearly complete resolution of all dyskinesia episodes, with no more than 1 or 2 short, nondisruptive episodes during each day. He was able to resume writing in class, walking home from school, and riding a bike. On one occasion, his parents unknowingly bought decaffeinated coffee, resulting in the immediate recurrence of his dyskinesia episodes at their original frequency and severity. After 4 days, the parents realized their mistake and resumed treatment with caffeinated coffee, instantly restoring the improvement seen previously. These events were interpreted as a fortuitous, real-life double-blind experiment.

 

ADCY5-related dyskinesia is believed to result from gain-of-function mutations in ADCY5. This enzyme is expressed mainly in the striatum, where it is inhibited by dopamine through D2 receptors and activated by adenosine through A2Areceptors. Adenosine receptors are the major target of caffeine (3, 5).Therefore, using caffeine to antagonize A2Areceptors, which inhibits ADCY5 and thus reduces hyperkinetic movement disorder in patients with ADCY5-related dyskinesia, makes sense. Moreover, caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, which means that a great deal already is known about its effects and safety, even in children. In light of this strong rationale and the team’s experience with their patients, caffeine may be an effective treatment for others with ADCY5-related dyskinesia and should be considered in all patients.

 

(Abstract of the publication)

 

Source

Caffeine and the Dyskinesia Related to Mutations in the ADCY5 Gene

 

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Increased creative thinking in narcolepsy https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/increased-creative-thinking-in-narcolepsy/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/increased-creative-thinking-in-narcolepsy/#respond Mon, 17 Jun 2019 09:45:54 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17052  

A study conducted by Célia Lacaux and Delphine Oudiette in the group of Prof. Isabelle Arnulf at ICM and Pitié-Salpêtrière AP-HP Hospital, in collaboration For more information ]]>  

A study conducted by Célia Lacaux and Delphine Oudiette in the group of Prof. Isabelle Arnulf at ICM and Pitié-Salpêtrière AP-HP Hospital, in collaboration with a team at Bologna University (Italy), shows increased creativity in patients with narcolepsy. Results are published in the journal Brain.

 

Some studies suggest a link between creativity and rapid eye movement sleep. Narcolepsy is characterized by falling asleep directly into rapid eye movement sleep, states of dissociated wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep (cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and lucid dreaming) and a high dream recall frequency. Lucid dreaming (the awareness of dreaming while dreaming) has been correlated with creativity.

 

Given their life-long privileged access to rapid eye movement sleep and dreams, researchers hypothesized that subjects with narcolepsy may have developed high creative abilities. To test this assumption, 185 subjects with narcolepsy and 126 healthy controls were evaluated for their level of creativity with two questionnaires, the Test of Creative Profile and the Creativity Achievement Questionnaire. Creativity was also objectively tested in 30 controls and 30 subjects with narcolepsy using the Evaluation of Potential Creativity test battery, which measures divergent and convergent modes of creative thinking in the graphic and verbal domains, using concrete and abstract problems.

 

Subjects with narcolepsy obtained higher scores than controls on the Test of Creative Profile in the three creative profiles (Innovative, Imaginative and Researcher) and on the Creative Achievement Questionnaire. They also performed better than controls on the objective test of creative performance. Most symptoms of narcolepsy (including sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, but not cataplexy) were associated with higher scores on the Test of Creative Profile.

 

These results highlight a higher creative potential in subjects with narcolepsy and further support a role of rapid eye movement sleep in creativity.

 

 

Source

Increased creative thinking in narcolepsy.

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Master Class creativity https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/17017/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/17017/#respond Wed, 12 Jun 2019 13:47:25 +0000 Isabelle REBEIX https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=17017  

 Registration before September 15, 2019

 

ICM proposes a wide range of different training and education programmes for the neuro-expert and the For more information ]]>  

 Registration before September 15, 2019

 

ICM proposes a wide range of different training and education programmes for the neuro-expert and the neuro-curious.

Education benefits innovation and individuals and here at ICM, we believe it all starts with the brain.

What we know about the brain and how it works can be applied to so much more than fighting neurological diseases, it can be applied to how we can do better and innovate at-large.

For this reason, ICM proposes neuroscience-based training in soft skills for all who are neuro-curious.

Empower your employees with our new #NeuroscienceOfCreativity Master Class!

With ICM neuroscientists and guest experts from the Society for the Neuroscience of Creativity, we invite you to demystify creativity with us and make it work for you and your team.

To learn more about creativity.

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Moral emotions, a diagnotic tool for frontotemporal dementia ? https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/moral-emotions-a-diagnotic-tool-for-frontotemporal-dementia/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/moral-emotions-a-diagnotic-tool-for-frontotemporal-dementia/#respond Fri, 07 Jun 2019 07:00:49 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=16957  

A study conducted by Marc Teichmann and Carole Azuar at the Brain and Spine Institute in Paris (France) and at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital shows a For more information ]]>  

A study conducted by Marc Teichmann and Carole Azuar at the Brain and Spine Institute in Paris (France) and at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital shows a particularly marked impairment of moral emotions in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The results, published in the Journal of Alzheimer’sDisease, open a new approach for early, sensitive and specific diagnosis of FTD.

 

Frontotemporal dementia is a cognitive and behavioral disease caused by degenerative alteration of anterior regions of the brain. The disease is characterized by behavioral disorders such as a progressive apathy, loss of interest, social withdrawal, loss of inhibition and the processing of emotions.

 

« We have known for a long time that these patients demonstrate impairment of emotion recognition and of theory of mind i.e. the ability to figure out the mental states of others: what they think, what they feel, what they like…  But does this emotional blunting also affect a specific kind of emotions called moral emotions, which are crucial for human interactions? » asks Marc Teichmann, coordinator of the study.

 

Moral emotions can be defined as « affective experiences promoting cooperation and group cohesion » including emotions such as admiration, shame or pity. They are distinct from other emotions in that they are strongly linked to the cultural context, moral rules and innate moral representations. In the context of FTD, which are primarily characterized by an impairment of behavior and social interactions, studying these particular set of emotions is a major issue to better understand the disease and to refine diagnostic accuracy.

 

In the present study, researchers and clinicians from the ICM – Brain and Spine Institute and the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital developed a test to assess moral emotions. It is composed of 42 scenarios for which the subject has to select, out of 4 response possibilities, the feeling s/he has in the scenario situation. La performance des patients FTD (N=22) are compared to the performance of 45 healthy subjects and to 15 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. To evaluate the specificity of the impairment of moral emotions in FTD the researchers contrasted the 42 moral scenarios involving an inter-human context and eliciting moral emotions with scenarios eliciting similar emotions without any mral valence. For example, it is possible to feel admiration for both an altruistic act and the architecture of a building. In both cases, the emotion is identified as admiration but the context is entirely different (moral versus extra-moral).

 

The results show that moral emotions are much more impaired than emotions without moral valence. In contrast, patients with Alzheimer’s disease had no impairment as compared to healthy subjects and they had similar performance with moral and extra-moral emotions.

 

« Our findings confirm that emotions in general are impaired in FTD and they reveal a particularly profound alteration of moral emotions. Our novel test tool appears to provide an early, sensitive and specific marker for FTD diagnosis while reliably distinguishing FTD from Alzheimer’s disease patients. It could also be a marker for other diseases involving the breakdown of moral emotions as for example in the case of psychopathic individuals. » concludes Marc Teichmann.

 

Source

Moral Emotions in Frontotemporal Dementia.Teichmann M, Daigmorte C, Funkiewiez A, Sanches C, Camus M, Mauras T, Le Ber I, Dubois B, Levy R, Azuar C. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019 May 20.

 

 

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THE BRAIN TO MARKET SUMMER SCHOOL 2019 : LIGHT ON NEURO-REHABILITATION https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-brain-to-market-summer-school-2019-light-on-neuro-rehabilitation/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/the-brain-to-market-summer-school-2019-light-on-neuro-rehabilitation/#respond Sat, 11 May 2019 07:00:45 +0000 Elodie Terrancle https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=15924 Apply Now to the Brain to Market Summer School !

If you work in research, healthcare, or business and development, this innovative training opportunity may be for For more information ]]> Apply Now to the Brain to Market Summer School !

If you work in research, healthcare, or business and development, this innovative training opportunity may be for you!

The 2019 Brain to Market Summer School, takes place September 2-6, at the ICM Brain and Spine Institute (Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière), in Paris, with Neuro-Rehabilitation as this year’s theme.

 

Register now here

 

For more information, download our brochure : Summer School 2019 brochure_Final (1)

 

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SPATAX Congres – Nice – September 2019 https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/spatax-congres-nice-september-2019/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/spatax-congres-nice-september-2019/#respond Wed, 24 Apr 2019 07:00:51 +0000 Elodie Terrancle https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=15410  

Members of the SPATAX Network, PREPARE_Ataxia consortium and Ataxia Study Group (ASG) and researchers from all over the world will meet in Nice from 20 to 21 For more information ]]>  

Members of the SPATAX Network, PREPARE_Ataxia consortium and Ataxia Study Group (ASG) and researchers from all over the world will meet in Nice from 20 to 21 September 2019 in a satellite meeting of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society congress.

The program includes plenary talks from leaders in the field of spinocerebellar diseases (dominant and recessive forms of cerebellar ataxias and spastic paraplegias), round tables and short talks or poster presentations from junior researchers.

Submit your abstract by 30th June.

Register by 15th July.

 

Learn more : 

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21 May : Workshop Data Management & Sharing in Neuroinformatics https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/21-may-workshop-data-management-sharing-in-neuroinformatics/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/21-may-workshop-data-management-sharing-in-neuroinformatics/#respond Mon, 22 Apr 2019 07:00:01 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=15511  

Neuroinformatics combines neuroscience and informatics research to develop and apply advanced tools and approaches essential for a major advancement in For more information ]]>  

Neuroinformatics combines neuroscience and informatics research to develop and apply advanced tools and approaches essential for a major advancement in understanding the structure and function of the brain.

The International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) is a professional organization devoted to advancing the field of neuroinformatics. One of its aims is to develop an international neuroinformatics infrastructure, which promotes the sharing of data and computing resources to the international research community. A larger objective of the INCF is to help develop scalable, portable, and extensible applications that can be used by neuroscience laboratories worldwide.

The principal objective of the French National Node of the INCF is to facilitate interactions between neuroinformatics researchers within France, and to act as a link between global INCF activities and local scientists, in collaboration with other actors working in neuroinformatics, such as the France Life Imaging infrastructure, the Société des Neurosciences, theNeuroSTIC community, etc.

The French National Node operates under the authority of the French National Alliance for Life and Health Sciences (ITMO Neurosciences), and is based at NeuroPSI (CNRS-Université Paris-Saclay).

 

➡ Program on : http://neuroinfo.fr/media/geant2019/programme.pdf

 

Learn more :

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A project on Parkinson’s disease awarded by the Health Data Hub https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/a-project-on-parkinsons-disease-awarded-by-the-health-data-hub/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/a-project-on-parkinsons-disease-awarded-by-the-health-data-hub/#respond Fri, 19 Apr 2019 08:29:40 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=15677  

Agnès Buzyn, minister of Health and Solidarity announces the 10 selected projects.

Jean-Christophe CORVOL, ICM team leader and neurologist (Sorbonne University, For more information ]]>  

Agnès Buzyn, minister of Health and Solidarity announces the 10 selected projects.

Jean-Christophe CORVOL, ICM team leader and neurologist (Sorbonne University, AP-HP) and Stanley DURRLEMAN, ICM team leader and coordinator of the neuroinformatics group (INRIA)

Two ICM researchers won the call for projects « Health Data Hub » launched by the Ministry of Health and Solidarity, with a collaborative project on Parkinson’s disease.

With the Villani report, the President of the Republic announced that Health would be a priority sector for the development of artificial intelligence. To this aim, a call for projects was launched last January by the ministry of Health and Solidarity to identify research which could beneficiate from the specific support of the Health Data Hub.

 

Selected by a jury composed of experts in health, research and artificial intelligence, 10 projects among 189 candidates will beneficiate from the specific support of the Health Data Hub.

The Health Data Hub platform, which facilitate interactions between health data producers, users and citizens, in high security conditions, is essential for the emergence of innovation in research.

Among the laureates, the NS-Park project, coordinated by Prof Jean-Christophe CORVOL, ICM team leader and neurologist (Sorbonne University, AP-HP) and Stanley DURRLEMAN, ICM team leader and coordinator of the neuroinformatics group (INRIA) in collaboration with Prof Florence TUBACH, epidemiologist at Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Prof Olivier RASCOL and Dr Maryse LAPEYRE-MESTRE from Toulouse Hospital.

 

The main objective of the NS-Park project is to make available to neurologists, a predictive tool of individual disease trajectory on Parkinson’s disease patients, in order to set up appropriate preventive measures. The data of this important cohort of 20 000 individuals, followed-up in expert centers for Parkinson’s disease will be linked to data from the Système National des Données de Santé (SNDS, National Health Data System) to work on the global care of patients. Computational and artificial intelligence approaches will be developed to model the progression of the disease. The secondary aim is to evaluate the impact of comorbidities on the progression of the disease. 

 

The clinical cohort NS-Park beneficiate from the support of ICM, FCRIN « French Clinical Research Infrastructure network », Inserm, APHP and France PARKINSON association.

“F-CRIN is an infractructure for the future facing today and tomorrow’s issues of clinical research” Vincent Diebolt, FCRIN Director

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Stéphanie Baulac receives the international epileptology award from the Michael foundation https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/stephanie-baulac-receives-the-international-epileptology-award-from-the-michael-foundation/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/stephanie-baulac-receives-the-international-epileptology-award-from-the-michael-foundation/#respond Thu, 18 Apr 2019 10:00:58 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=15598  

Stéphanie Baulac, head of the “Genetics and physiopathology of epilepsy” at ICM, receives the international “Michael Prize” award for her research in the For more information ]]>  

Stéphanie Baulac, head of the “Genetics and physiopathology of epilepsy” at ICM, receives the international “Michael Prize” award for her research in the field of epilepsy.

 

The 2019 Michael-Prize was awarded Stéphanie Baulac, team leader at ICM, and the Canadian epileptologist Birgit Frauscher.

 

This award acknowledges the  pioneering work of Stéphanie Baulac’s team on  the identification of brain somatic second-hit mutational mechanisms in DEPDC5-related epilepsies, and the characterization of a focal and mosaic mouse model of Depdc5-deficiency recapitulating features of epilepsy associated with FCD.

Every year, the Michael-Prize is awarded to researchers for their work in the field of epilepsy. It promotes the development of scientific and clinical research on this pathology and in epileptology.

 

The Michael Prize 2019 will be officially awarded at the 33th International Epilepsy Congress in Bangkok (June 22 – 26, 2019).

 

More information : http://www.michael-foundation.de/michaelpreis/michaelpreistraeger.php?l=2&y=2019

 

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ICM has now launched the NovaSeq 6000, the llumina’s Newest High Throughput Sequencing Instrument https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/icm-has-now-launched-the-novaseq-6000-the-lluminas-newest-high-throughput-sequencing-instrument/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/icm-has-now-launched-the-novaseq-6000-the-lluminas-newest-high-throughput-sequencing-instrument/#respond Mon, 15 Apr 2019 12:00:06 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=15332  

With NovaSeq, we can sequence more samples, broader and greater depth and guaranty more flexibility and affordability !

Applications include :

-Re-sequencing For more information ]]>  

With NovaSeq, we can sequence more samples, broader and greater depth and guaranty more flexibility and affordability !

Applications include :

-Re-sequencing (WES, WGS)
-De novo sequencing (new genomes)
-RNA-Seq, single cell RNA-Seq
-chiP-seq
-Epigenetics

Ask for a quote at igenseq@icm-institute.org

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Results of the competition – ICM to Host the France Brain Bee https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/icm-to-host-the-france-brain-bee-on-april-6-2019/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/icm-to-host-the-france-brain-bee-on-april-6-2019/#respond Fri, 12 Apr 2019 11:30:09 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=14525  

Winner of the 2019 France Brain Bee, Seung-Bin Joo to participate in the International Brain Bee (IBB) championships in Daegu, South Korea

 

 

On Saturday, April For more information ]]>  

Winner of the 2019 France Brain Bee, Seung-Bin Joo to participate in the International Brain Bee (IBB) championships in Daegu, South Korea

 

 

On Saturday, April 6th, 21 students competed in the France Brain Bee, a neuroscience competition where students are tested on their knowledge of the brain. The France Brain Bee, hosted and sponsored by the ICM Brain and Spine Institute in collaboration with Gifted in France, is an affiliate of the International Brain Bee (IBB).

 

Congratulations to the winners!

 

First placeSeung-Bin Joo, The International School of Paris
Second place Jihee Cheong, EIB Victor Hugo
Third place Maryam Ali – The American School of Grenoble

 

 

The research centre and not-for-profit based in Paris, France, aim to encourage high school students to learn more about their brain, help dispel stigma around neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders and pursue careers in neuroscience. This programme is part of ICM’s new education and training centre, the Open Brain School.

Kicking-off the day, contestants participated in an ice-breaking session to ease the nerves. The competition then ensued with four stages:  A Written Quiz, Patient Diagnosis, Neuroanatomy Identification and Rapid Question and Answer section. Five finalists were chosen from the first four rounds to compete in the final Jeopardy Stage. Top 5 contestants were: Seung-Bin Joo and Amélie Haloxová both from the International School of Paris.

Jihee Cheong from Ecole Bilingue Victor Hugo, Nora El Doughbshy from Lycée Louis-le-Grand and Maryam Ali from the American School of Grenoble.

First place winner Seung-Bin Joo, in addition to a trophy, was also awarded a one year complimentary membership to the American Library in Paris, a two week internship at the ICM Brain and Spine Institute and paid travel expenses to participate in the International Brain Bee Championships.

Winners from over 25 countries will be eligible to compete in the IBB, which will be hosted by the International Brain Research Organisation (IBRO), during their World Congress in Daegu, South Korea, 19-23 September.

IBB is a non-profit educational organization consisting of partnerships with the American Psychological Association (APA), the Dana Foundation, the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS), the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and the Society for Neuroscience (SfN).

Many of the students present had been studying hard for several months!  Fourteen students came from six different schools in Paris: ISP, EIB Victor Hugo, Ecole Jeannine Manuel, Collège Pierre et Marie Curie and Lycée Louis-le-Grande; 6 students came from the American School of Grenoble, and one student is homeschooling in Paris.

To be eligible, students had to be in grades 9-12th grade (3ème- terminale) and register by February 28th.

The questions at the competition were based on the Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System book, which is free and available for download to all interested students.

We look forward to sharing news about the 2020 France Brain in the weeks and months ahead. To sign up your students or schools for the next France Brain Bee, please contact: francebrainbee@gmail.com or visit francebrainbee.org.

 

 

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Centre for Neuroinformatics https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/centre-for-neuroinformatics/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/centre-for-neuroinformatics/#respond Fri, 12 Apr 2019 10:00:35 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=15189 The Centre for Neuroinformatics is a transverse structure in the Institute, gathering researchers, engineers, and IT people, united to promote excellence in data For more information ]]> The Centre for Neuroinformatics is a transverse structure in the Institute, gathering researchers, engineers, and IT people, united to promote excellence in data management, data analysis, and scientific computing across the whole ICM.The Centre for Neuroinformatics, a service provided by ICM.

 

Missions

Our core mission at the Brain Institute Centre for Neuroinformatics is to develop a common set of tools and processes to manage and analyse all kinds of neuroscience data. It allows any scientist from any domain to contribute to, and benefit from interoperable databases and a shared portfolio of methods and analytics tools.
We leverage all the data processing expertise distributed accross Brain Institute teams. In turn, we assist them in the developement of their research projects and offer training in all areas of data science.

 

Expertise

Data Management 

We help teams and core facilities to implement standardised processes for data curation, annotation, de-identification and quality control in all areas of neuroscience research: genomics, electrophysiology, cellular imaging, neuroimaging, functional exploration and clinical observations.

 

Data Analysis

We assist teams in the analysis of their data. Our offer goes from mere consulting and training up to end-to-end studies. Our expertise spans biostatistics, mathematical modeling, and machine learning, especially for the integration of multimodal data. We also develop domain-specific processing tools, for instance in genomics.

 

Software Development

We develop software tools for the structuration and indexing of heterogeneous data sets. We also develop and maintain a portfolio of processing and analytics tools that may be triggered automatically or on-demand.

 

Scientific IT

Scientific IT sets up and maintains high performance servers, data storage, computing cluster and individual workstations with dedicated software for scientific computing.

 

Scientific events

We organise events, including our monthly meet-up “Café de la Neuroinformatique”, which federates the vibrant Brain Institute neuroinformatics community distibuted across all teams. We also organise international conferences and workshops.

 

Training

We offer training sessions for the Institute scientists in various areas of data science: code development and deployment on high performance computing cluster, usage of scientific software such as Matlab, Omero, REDCap or XNAT, good practices in data processing, statistical analysis and machine learning.

 

Events

Workshops and Conferences :

The Centre organises international scientific workshops, on several topics of interest for the neuroinformatics community.

 

Learn more 

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7 million euro awarded for Parkinson’s research through EU Innovative Medicines Initiative https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/7-million-euro-awarded-for-parkinsons-research-through-innovative-medicines-initiative/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/7-million-euro-awarded-for-parkinsons-research-through-innovative-medicines-initiative/#respond Wed, 13 Mar 2019 15:40:32 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=14842  

Five ICM researchers - Olga Corti (scientific co-leader), Philippe Ravassard, Stéphane Hunot, Bassem Hassan and Patrick Michel - were granted 855 000 € as For more information ]]>  

Five ICM researchers – Olga Corti (scientific co-leader), Philippe Ravassard, Stéphane Hunot, Bassem Hassan and Patrick Michel – were granted 855 000 € as partners of the PD-MitoQUANT consortium. PD-MitoQUANT (www.pdmitoquant.eu) is an Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI – www.imi.europa.eu) research project that aims at improving our understanding of Parkinson’s condition in order to foster the development of better treatments in the future. The project will run for 3 years, starting from 01 February 2019, receiving 4.5 million euro in funding from the EU’s Horizon 2020 programme and 2.46 million euro in-kind from European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) members and Parkinson’s UK.

Researchers already know that neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s, damage cells in our brain. PD-MitoQUANT focuses on how mitochondria, the ‘powerhouses’ of the cell, contribute to cell death and neurodegeneration when they malfunction. There is growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in Parkinson’s, but no effective treatments based on this knowledge have been developed so far.PD-MitoQUANT will deepen our understanding of precisely how and when mitochondria malfunction in Parkinson’s and optimize tools for the early stages of drug development, so that pharmaceutical companies can develop better treatments in the future.

The project involves 14 partners from 9 countries, including academic experts from RCSI (Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland), Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Neuroscience Institute of the National Research Council, University College London, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre,the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), SMEs (GeneXplain GmbH, Mimetas B.V., Pintail Limited),pharmaceutical companies from the EFPIA members Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., H. Lundbeck A/S and UCB S.A, and a patient advocacy organisation (Parkinson’s UK).

 

PD-MitoQUANT has received funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 821522. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and EFPIA and Parkinson’s UK.

The material presented and views expressed here reflect the author’s view and neither IMI nor the European Union, EFPIA, or any Associated Partners are responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.

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Researchers for the first time identify neurons in the human visual cortex that respond to faces https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/researchers-for-the-first-time-identify-neurons-in-the-human-visual-cortex-that-respond-to-faces/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/researchers-for-the-first-time-identify-neurons-in-the-human-visual-cortex-that-respond-to-faces/#respond Thu, 24 Jan 2019 09:21:06 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=14680  

Imagine a world where everyone has the same face. That would be a very different world than the one we know. In our world, in which faces are different, faces For more information ]]>  

Imagine a world where everyone has the same face. That would be a very different world than the one we know. In our world, in which faces are different, faces convey essential information. For example, most of us can recognize a celebrity’s face even if it only appears for a fraction of second or the face of an old college friend even after decades of not seeing him. Many of us can sense the mood of a significant other just based on facial expression. Often, we can establish whether a person is trustworthy by just looking at his or her face. Despite intensive research, how the brain achieves all of these behaviors is still a great mystery.

A new study published in Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology (issue of January 22, 2019), identifies for the first time the neurons in the human visual cortex that selectively respond to faces. The study was carried out by Dr. Vadim Axelrod, head of the Consciousness and Cognition Laboratory at the Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University, in collaboration with a team from Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Épinière and Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (team leader: Prof. Lionel Naccache).

The researchers showed that the neurons in the visual cortex (in the vicinity of the Fusiform Face Area) responded much more strongly to faces than to city landscapes or objects (see examples: https://youtu.be/QYJCB60FhHE). A high response was found both for faces of famous people (e.g., Charles Aznavour, Nicolas Sarkozy, Catherine Deneuve, Louis De Funes) and for faces unfamiliar to the participant in the experiment. In an additional experiment, the neurons exhibited face-selectivity to human and animal faces that appeared within a movie (a clip from Charlie Chaplin’s The Circus).

 

“In the early 1970s Prof. Charles Gross and colleagues discovered the neurons in the visual cortex of macaque monkeys that responded to faces. In humans, face-selective activity has been extensively investigated, mainly using non-invasive tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiology (EEG),” explains the paper’s lead author, Dr. Axelrod. “Strikingly, face-neurons in posterior temporal visual cortex have never been identified before in humans. In our study, we had a very rare opportunity to record neural activity in a single patient while micro-electrodes were implanted in the vicinity of the Fusiform Face Area ? the largest and likely the most important face-selective region of the human brain.”

 

Probably the best-known neurons that respond to faces have been the so-called “Jennifer Aniston cells” ? the neurons in the medial temporal lobe that respond to different images of a specific person (e.g., Jennifer Aniston in the original study published in Nature by Quiroga and colleagues in 2005).

 

“But the neurons in the visual cortex that we reported here are very different from the neurons in the medial temporal lobe,” emphasizes Dr. Axelrod. “First, the neurons in the visual cortex respond vigorously to any type of face, regardless of the person’s identity. Second, they respond much earlier. Specifically, while in our case, a strong response could be observed within 150 milliseconds of showing the image, the “Jennifer Aniston cells” usually take 300 milliseconds or more to respond.”

 

The present results provide unique insights into human brain functioning at the cellular level during face processing. These findings also help bridge the understanding of face mechanisms across species (i.e., monkeys and humans).

 

“It is really exciting,” Dr. Axelrod says, “that after almost half a century since the discovery of face-neurons in macaque monkeys, it is now possible to demonstrate similar neurons in humans.”

 

Originally published on : https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-01/bu-rin011519.php

 

Source :

 

Face-selective neurons in the vicinity of the human fusiform face area

Vadim Axelrod, Camille Rozier, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Katia Lehongre, Claude Adam, Virginie Lambrecq, Vincent Navarro, Lionel Naccache. January 22, 2019; 92 (4). Neurology. 

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Unraveling brain plasticity dynamics https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/unraveling-brain-plasticity-dynamics/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/unraveling-brain-plasticity-dynamics/#respond Wed, 09 Jan 2019 14:51:07 +0000 Océane Paisant https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=14607  

Brain plasticity is the dynamic process happening in our brain as we learn through experience, and it varies greatly with age. What are the mechanism behind this? For more information ]]>  

Brain plasticity is the dynamic process happening in our brain as we learn through experience, and it varies greatly with age. What are the mechanism behind this? A study conducted by Alberto Bacci’s team at the ICM discovered the mechanism behind cortical sensory plasticity. These results were published in eLife.

In the cerebral cortex, sensory-motor plasticity is at the base of our capacity to learn things and skills. This process is accompanied by circuit rewiring in the brain, and is particularly present in specific developmental windows, known as the “critical periods”, during which neuronal circuits adapt to the flow of sensory input received from the external world. These time windows for sensory-motor plasticity are crucial, for example, to learn perfectly a new language, or to achieve excellence in violin or football.

Critical periods in the cerebral cortex are transitory periods, which are closed by several molecular players. Among those, extracellular perineuronal nets (PNN) play a major role in closing brain plasticity. PNNs are part of the extracellular matrix, and are composed of proteins and complex sugars linked to one another. PNNs form a dense net around only a specific type of inhibitory neuron, the parvalbumin (PV) basket cells. These nets accumulate around PV cells only at the end of a critical period, and, by doing so, prevent plasticity in adult subjects. Importantly, PV basket cells synchronize the activity of groups of neurons, creating rhythmic patterns of neural impulses. In the visual cortex, these patterns are the brain’s way of representing incoming information from the eyes.

Dissolving PNNs with an enzyme leads to a reopening of cortical plasticity in adults, but the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated.

Faini et al. investigated this mechanism in the context of visual cortical plasticity. This type of plasticity can modulate the ocular dominance bias, the fact that the right hemisphere of the brain receive more sensory inputs from the left eye and vice versa. Closing one eye during the critical period, leads to the loss of this contralateral bias, due to plastic changes induced by reduced sensory inputs from the closed eye. Adults cannot change ocular dominance, unless PNNs are removed. But what are the mechanisms?

 

We found thatPNNs selectively “muffle” inputs onto PV cells from the thalamus, which is a major relay of sensory information in the brain. PNN accumulation around PV cells reduces the strength of incoming signals from the eyes when they reach these neurons in the visual cortex. Disrupting the nets enhances visual signals onto PV cells only, thus enabling cortical circuits of adult mice to behave as they did during the postnatal critical period.”precises Alberto Bacci.

All these effects were strongly reduced by sensory deprivation, namely preventing seeing out of one eye, indicating that the effect of PNNs on thalamic input onto PV cells depends primarily on visual sensory experience.

Overall, these results unravel the mechanism underlying PNN-dependent re-opening of cortical plasticity. After the critical period, PV cells grow PNNs as a protection to prevent too strong inputs coming from the thalamus. But this protection is achieved at the cost of plasticity. This mechanism is consistent with the fact that plasticity, while essential during development for integrating all kind of experiences and skills, may have to be partially given up to consolidate our internal model of what we see, hear or experience.

It could also have a major importance for pathologies characterized by altered sensory perception such as schizophrenia and autism.  Indeed, independent studies revealed that PNN accumulation around PV cells is altered in these brain disorders. Investigating the roles of these nets in more detail could therefore help researchers to develop new treatments for such conditions. More widely, understanding precisely how cortical circuits lose their ability to rewire themselves improves our knowledge of how we learn and store memories.

This work was done in collaboration with a group in Pisa, Italy.

 

Source

Perineuronals nets controls visual input via thalamic recruitment of cortical PV interneurons. Faini et al. eLife. December 2018

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GEoPD Annual Meeting and following Workshop in 2018 at ICM, Paris https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/geopd-annual-meeting-and-following-workshop-in-2018-at-icm-paris/ https://icm-institute.org/en/actualite/geopd-annual-meeting-and-following-workshop-in-2018-at-icm-paris/#respond Fri, 19 Oct 2018 10:20:08 +0000 Antoine Bonvoisin https://icm-institute.org/?post_type=actualite&p=13812 The 13th Annual Meeting of GEoPD (13-14 December 2018), is hosted by GEoPD French partners: Alexis Brice, Alexis Elbaz, Jean-Christophe Corvol, and Suzanne For more information ]]> The 13th Annual Meeting of GEoPD (13-14 December 2018), is hosted by GEoPD French partners: Alexis Brice, Alexis Elbaz, Jean-Christophe Corvol, and Suzanne Lesage.

GEoPD is a global consortium of researchers dedicated to promoting education, scientific research and translational development in PD. The consortium founded in 2003 by Michael J Fox Foundation has been operating since 2004, and has an active membership from more than 60 sites on 6 continents. The consortium includes most international leaders in Genetics and Epidemiology of PD (N Hattori, M Farrer, O Ross, EM Valente, A Elbaz, C Klein, T Gasser, K Markopoulo, etc). The GEoPD facilitates epidemiologic, clinical and genetic research in PD and provides a mechanism whereby active global site investigators may share their expertise, resources (41,988 PD patients and 41,505 controls) and reagents. More than 10 peer reviewed papers have been published based on the consortium’s work. The consortium’s mission is to promote multi-investigator research projects throughout the year. Annual Meetings since 2005 offer a valuable forum for consortium members to discuss unpublished data and ideas, highlight research questions or needs and identify global opportunities for partnership. These meetings are organized each year in a different country by one of the members; the first meeting was organized in Paris in 2005, and subsequent meetings took place in Greece, Norway, Germany, Japan, Korea, USA, Luxembourg, Canada… and in 2017, in Australia.
In 2018, the French partners, Alexis Brice, Alexis Elbaz, Jean-Christophe Corvol, and Suzanne Lesage wish to host the 13th Annual Meeting, on December 13th to 14th, at the Brain and Spinal Cord Institute (ICM), Paris, France.

We are organizing a 2-day scientific event, including the 13th Annual Meeting of the GEoPD consortium & a satellite Parkinson’s disease symposium. The first day will be a closed meeting dedicated to about 80 GEoPD members in order to review ongoing and future projects. The second day will be a symposium to discuss hot topics in PD research open to the scientific community.

More information will follow shortly regarding all aspects of the meeting.

 

REGISTER

 

Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease – GEoPD : https://geopd.lcsb.uni.lu

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